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FALL 196 2 



HISTORY \0i^ .'Education 

See page 7 


W^hy is tuition higher than it uas in 1934? Is it true that 85% of the members 
of the faculty are Communists? Why ivon^t you accept my daughter? 



FALL 1962 VoL 41, INo. 1 


Ann Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Dorothy Weakley '56, Managing Editor 


, -^ 

- -- 

i;.:r:S.. 1' T^v- 

! V 

4 ScoTTiES Become Schoolmarms 
Elizabeth Cole Stack 

7 A Short History of Education 
Richard Armour 

12 Sink or Swim 
Susan Coltrane 

15 The French: Are They Individualists? 
Koenraad W. Swart 

19 Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

31 Worthy Notes 



(Opposite page) 

Cartoon of an alumnae meeting, vintage contemporary, by John Stuart 
McKenzie. See p. 7. Photographs on pp. 3, 4, 5, 6, 21, 22, 24, 26. and 29 by 
Ken Patterson. 

The space where the new dormitory is being built is where Mr. Tart's house 
and Cunningham Cottage once stood, next door to Dr. Alston's house on one 
side and to Miss McKinney's on the other. Each frontispiece this year will 
give you a progress report on the building. 

The Agnes Scott Alumnae Quarterly is published jour times a year (November, 
February, April and July) by the Alumnae Association of Agnes Scott College 
at Decatur, Georgia. Yearly subscription, $2.00. Single copy 50 cents. Entered 
as second-clnss matter at the Post Office of Decatur, Georgia, under Art of 







A Beginning 

FALL 1962 

A great yawning mudhole, 

full of Georgia red clay, with 

a fence around it, is tlie current 

status of what will be, by August 1963, 

a wondrous new dormitory. 

/ OS^^O 

Scotties Becoir. 

Dr. Elizabeth S 

Throughout the country, Agnes 
Scott graduates are teaching in 
the secondary school, that peculiar 
institution known as the American 
high school. Their high school may 
be on Central Avenue with trucks rush- 
ing by, rattling the window panes of 
a three-storied building with class- 
rooms like the squares of a checker 
board. Their school may be a four- 
teacher high school on the sands of 
Ocracoke. Their school may be one 
of the new consolidated edifices that 
dot the countryside with their fleets 
of buses. Their school may look like 
a new country club with its low. 
rambling structure made of glass, 
steel, brick, and stone. Their school 
may be an imitation of the college 
campus with ivy-covered buildings 
where the appropriately dressed stu- 
dent clad in the latest copy of Ivv 
League clothes prepares for college. 
What they have in common, what all 
of America's 28,000 high schools 
have in common is one course, prep- 
aration for college entrance. And it 
is this one course that Agnes Scott 
graduates are teaching. 

It is to this college preparatory 
program in the secondary school that 
Agnes Scott College, one of the coun- 
try's outstanding liberal arts colleges, 
has made a distinguished contribu- 
tion. Graduating with a strong aca- 
demic background, young women 
have found rewarding professional 
careers teaching their first academic 
concern, their major subject, to the 

Jane Nabors '62, as a teacher trainee, teaches high 
school students to "parlez-vous." 



s about Teacher Education 

adolescents in the American hiiih 

Rampant in writing and discussion 
regarding high school education to- 
day is the question, how shall the 
secondary school teacher be pre- 
pared? It is answered at Agnes Scott 
by the conviction that teacher educa- 
tion should be a college-wide enter- 
prise involving both the major de- 
partments, such as. English, history, 
or the foreign languages and the 
education department which is con- 
cerned with professional courses. In 
order to provide the strongest 
teacher-education faculty and to en- 
rich course offerings. Agnes Scott 
College instigated jointly with Emorv 
University in 1948. the .Agnes Scott- 
Emory Teacher Education Program. 

The future teacher's curriculum in 
various teaching fields is planned by 
a Committee on Teacher Education 
representing both institutions. There 
is. therefore, no major in education 
per se. The future teacher selects her 
major in one of the liberal arts. 

Although certification for teaching 
is given for elementary and second- 
ary levels, the majorit\ of Agnes 
Scott students preparing to teach 
choose to do so at the secondary level 
in one of five fields: English, foreign 
language, mathematics, science, and 
the social sciences. The Agnes Scott 
program is limited to forty students, 
and not every would-be teacher is 
encouraged to enter the colleges pro- 
gram. Careful screening of her scho- 
lastic aptitude, personality traits, and 

Language lab equipment is demonstrated 
by Ann Wood '62. 

teaching potential is done by the 
Committee on Teacher Education 
which is composed of members of 
many academic departments. The 
evaluation of the student by her 
major professors and by instructors 
in prerequisite courses weigh heavily 
in selection. 

The profile, therefore, of the Agnes 
Scott graduate in the secondary 
school emphasizes first a teacher with 
knowledge of her subject matter. It is 
desired and most often true that she 
possess as well a deep, abiding 
curiosity and interest in her area of 
specialization. Yet, knowledge of a 
subject area such as English or 
mathematics is not enough for sur- 
vi\al in America's high school class- 
rooms. Many educators graduated 
from Agnes Scott in the past four 
decades know this only too well, with 
a know ledge derived from experience, 
from painful hours of worry about 
students and from mornings, eve- 
nings, afternoons, when it seemed 
that never was so much expected from 
so few who teach so many. 

Of course, the reason that so much 
is expected from the American high 
school teacher is unquestionabK the 

Carol Cowan '62 and future outer spacers explore 
scientific machines. 



Ancient Latin gets modern liveliness from 
student teacher Cynthia Craig Rester '62. 

extension of universal education. 
Americans are dedicated to education 
for all the children of all the people. 
The boys and girls who travel to 
school from various types of homes 
representing many types of vocations 
and infinite degrees of social and 
economic levels. Since she must cope 
w ith all the children of all the people. 

Dr. Elizabeth Cole Stack 


Elizabeth Cole Stock holds the B.A. degree 
from Greensboro College and the M.Ed, 
and Ph.D. degrees from the University of 
North Carolina. As an associate professor 
of education, she is on appointment at 
Agnes Scott for instruction at Agnes Scott 
and Emory University in their joint pro- 

the teacher prepared at Agnes Scott 
studies the nature of the adolescent, 
how he learns, and how he may be 
led to want to learn that subject 
matter she loves so well. Further, 
the teacher is introduced to the school 
as part of the social order and learns 
of its historical development, present 
philosophy, organization, and prac- 

Finally, in one quarter of the senior 
year at Agnes Scott, the preparation 
involves student teaching as an assist- 
ant teacher in a public school in the 
Atlanta area. It is during this period 
that the beginning teacher is intro- 
duced to many curricular innova- 
tions that are taking place in the 
American high school. Mathematics 
teachers teach the new math curricu- 
lum with materials prepared by the 
School Mathematics Study Group at 
Yale University. A science curriculum, 
developed at Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, is presented to future 
physicists. Curricular innovations in 
biology, such as the Biological 
Science Curriculum Study, sponsored 
by the American Institute of Biologi- 
cal Scientists, are analyzed, de- 
veloped, and taught. The foreign 
language major speaks with students 

in language laboratories equipped 
with individual recording booths. 
The English and history teachers in- 
troduce the inexpensive paper back 
editions of classics and current litera- 
ture, which their students can not 
only read but also own. The begin- 
ning history teacher uses historical 
documents as well as current ma- 
terials. Other curricular innovations, 
such as the Advanced Placement Pro- 
gram, the teaching machine, the flexi- 
ble school day, and team teaching are 
part of the study of a teacher pre- 
pared at Agnes Scott. New and ex- 
citing ideas going on in the materials 
and methodology of the high school 
curriculum are quickly integrated in- 
to the courses that prepare teachers 
for the classrooms. 

The Agnes Scott student who 
chooses a career in secondary edu- 
cation takes her knowledge of the 
liberal arts and her love of learning 
to schools all over the country. Indeed, 
she is a teacher who is not so much 
concerned with acquisition of "skills" 
to be used toward the attainment of 
short-term goals as she is concerned 
with the maturation of her students 
toward the full, imaginative, and re- 
sourceful life. 





ITTLE IS KNOWN about higher educa- 
tion during the Stone Age, which is 
perhaps just as well. 

Because of a weakness in the lib- 
eral arts, the B.A. was not offered, and there was 
only the B.S., or Bachelor of Stones. Laboratory 
facilities were meager, owing to a lack of govern- 
ment contracts and support from private industry, 
but tlie stars were readily available, on clear nights, 
for those interested in astronomy. (Scholars, who 
went around without much on, looked at the stars 
with the naked eye.) 

Prehistoric students, being before history, failed 
to comprehend the fundamentals of the subject, 
such as its being divided into Ancient, Medieval, 
and Modem. 

There were no College Boards. This was for- 
tunate, because without saw or plane, boards were 

Nor were there any fraternities. The only clubs 

on the campus were those carried by the students 
or, in self-defense, by members of the faculty. 

Alunuii organizations were in their infancy, 
where some of them have remained. The alumni 
secretary occupied a small cave, left behind when 
the director of development moved to a larger one. 
Wliile waiting for contributions to come in, he idly 
doodled on the wall, completely unaware that art 
critics would someday mistake his drawings of cer- 
tain members of the board of trustees for dinosaurs 
and saber-toothed tigers. 

The Alumni Quarterly came out every quarter 
of a century, and was as eagerly awaited as it is 

The Classical Period 

In ancient Athens everyone knew Greek, and in 
ancient Rome everyone knew Latin, even small 
children — which those who have taken Elementary 


Editor's Note: Richard Armour, professor of English and dean of the faculty 
at Scripps College, is the author of 22 books of humor and satire. He has 
written this article (spoofing much that is often taken too seriously) for 
exclusive publications in alumni magazines. Readers who like it will also 
enjoy /f Ait Started With Eve, Twisted Tales from Shakespeare, The 
Classics Reclassified, and his newest book. Golf Is a Four-letter Word. 


John Stuart McKenzle, who illustrated the article, is the man behind the 
Agnes Scoit Alumnae Quarterly — and behind the Emory Alumnus and the 
Georgia Tech Alumnus. A graduate of Emory, he is a nationally recognized 
designer of printing; he is responsible for the refreshing layouts in our 
magazine. Also, and perhaps as important, he is the husband of Virginia 
Lee Brown McKenzie '47 and the father of Carol, Craig, Nancy, and Heather. 

History of Education (continued) 

CLASSICAL PERIOD ... "a spirited chariot race 
between the chairman of the funds drive end the 
tax collector, each trying to get to a good pros- 
pect first." 

DARK AGES . . . "Damsels, who were invariably 
in distress, wrought havoc on a young man's 
grade-point average." 

Greek or Elementary Latin will find hard to be- 
lieve. Universities wishing to teach a language 
which had little practical use but was good for 
mental discipline could have offered English if they 
had thought of it. 

Buildings were all in the classical style, and 
what looked like genuine marble was genuine 
marble. However, philosophy classes were some- 
times held on the steps, the students being so eager 
to learn that they couldn't wait to get inside. 

The Peripatetic School was a college where the 
professors kept moving from town to town, closely 
followed by students and creditors. Sometimes lec- 
tures were held in the Groves of Academe, where 
students could munch apples and olives and oc- 
casionally cast an anxious eye at birds in the 
branches overhead. 

Under the Caesars, taxation became so burden- 
some that Romans in the upper brackets found they 
might as well give money to their Alma Mater in- 
stead of letting the State have it. Thus it was that 
crowds often gathered along the Appian Way to 
applaud a spirited chariot race between the chair- 
man of the funds drive and the tax collector, each 
trying to get to a good prospect first. 

The word "donor" comes from the Latin donare, 
to give, and is not to be confused with dunare, to 
dun, though it frequently is. 

When a prominent alumnus was thrown to the 
lions, customary procedure in the alumni office 
was to observe a moment of silence, broken only 
by the sound of munching. Then the secretary, 
wrapping his toga a little more tightly around him, 
solemnly declared, "Well, we might as well take 
him off the cultivation list." 

The Middle Ages 

In the period known as the Dark Ages, or night- 
hood, everyone was in the dark. Higher education 
survived only because of illuminated manuscripts, 
which were discovered during a routine burning of 
a library. It is interesting to reconstruct a typical 
classroom scene: a group of dedicated students 
clustered around a glowing piece of parchment, 
listening to a lecture in Advanced Monasticism, a 



ten-year course. If some found it hard to concen- 
trate, it was because they were dreaming about 
quitting before exams and going off on a crusade. 

Some left even sooner, before the end of the 
lecture, having spied a beautiful damsel being pur- 
sued by a dragon who had designs on her. Damsels, 
who were invariably in distress, wrought havoc on 
a young man's grade-point average. 

Members of the faculty were better off than 
previously, because they wore coats of armor. Fully 
accoutered, and with their visors down, they could 
summon up enough courage to go into the presi- 
dent's office and ask for a promotion even thougli 
they had not published a thing. 

At this time the alumni council became more 
aggressive in its fund drives, using such persuasive 
devices as the thumbscrew, the knout, the rack, and 
the wheel. A wealthy alumnus would usually do- 
nate generously if a sufficient number of alumni, 
armed with pikestaffs and halberds, could cross his 
moat and storm his castle walls. A few could be 
counted on to survive the rain of stones, arrows, 
and molten lead. Such a group of alumni, known 
as "the committee," was customarily conducted to 
the castle by a troubador, who led in the singing 
of the Alma Mater Song the while. 

The Renaissance 

During the Renaissance, universities sprang up 
all over Europe. You could go to bed at night, with 
not a university around, and the next morning there 
would be two universities right down the street, 
each with a faculty, student body, campanile, and 
need for additional endowment. 

The first universities were in Italy, where Dante 
was required reading. Some students said his 
"Paradise" and "Purgatory" were as hard as 
"Hell." Boccaccio was not required but was read 
anyhow, and in the original Italian, so much being 
lost in translation. Other institutions soon followed, 
such as Heidelb:rg, where a popular elective was 
Duelling 103a, b, usually taken concurrently with 
First Aid, and the Sorbonne, which never seemed 
to catch on with tourists as much as the Eiffel 
Tower, the Folies Bergere, and Napoleon's Tomb. 



i 0^ 


RENAISSANCE . . . "You could go to bed ot 
night, with not a university around, and the next 
morning there would be two universities right 
down the street." 


History of Education (continued) 

In England there was Oxford, where, by curious 
coincidence, all of the young instructors were 
named Don. There was also Cambridge. 

The important thing about the Renaissance, 
which was a time of awakening (even in the class- 
room), was education of the Whele Man. Previ- 
ously such vital parts as the elbows and ear lobes 
had been neglected. The graduate of a university 
was supposed, above all, to be a Gentleman. This 
meant that he should know such things as archery, 
falconry, and fencing (subjects now largely rele- 
gated to Physical Education and given only one- 
half credit per semester), as well as, in the senior 
year, how to use a knife and fork. 

During the Renaissance, the works of Homer, 
Virgil, and other classical writers were rediscov- 
ered, much to the disappointment of students. 

Alumni officials concentrated their efforts on 
securing a patron, someone rich like Lorenzo de' 
Medici, someone clever like Machiavelli, or (if 
they wished to get rid of a troublesome member 
of the administration) someone really useful like 
Lucrezia Borgia. 

COLONIAL AMERICA . . . "The first universities in 
America were founded by the Puritans. This explains 
the strict regulations about Late Hours . , ." 

Colonial America 

The first universities in America were founded 
by the Puritans. This explains the strict regiilations 
about Late Hours, Compulsory Chapel, No Liquor 
on the Campus, and Off -Limits to Underclassmen 
which still exist at many institutions. 

Some crafts were taught, but witchcraft was an 
extracurricular activity. Witch-burning, on the 
other hand, was the seventeenth century equivalent 
of hanging a football coach in effigy at the end of 
a bad season. Though deplored, it was passed off 
by the authorities as attributable to "youthful ex- 

Harvard set the example for naming colleges 
after donors. William and Mary, though making a 
good try, failed to start a trend for using first 
names. It was more successful, however, in starting 
Phi Beta Kappa, a fraternity which permitted no 
rough stuff in its initiations. At first the Phi Beta 
Kappa key was worn on the key ring, but the prac- 
tice went out with the discovery of the watch chain 
and vest. 

During the Colonial Period, alumni officials 
limited their fund-raising activities to those times 
when an alumnus was securely fastened, hands and 
legs, in the stocks. In this position he was com- 
pletely helpless and gave generously, or could be 

Revolutionary America 

Higher education came to a virtual standstill 
during the Revolution — every able-bodied male 
having enlisted for the duration. Since the ROTC 
was not yet established, college men were forced 
to have other qualifications for a commission, such 
as money. 

General George Washington was given an hon- 
orary degree by Harvard, and this helped see him 
through the difficult winter at Valley Forge. Since 
he gave no commencement address, it is assured 
that he made a substantial contribution to the build- 
ing fund. Then again, mindful of the reputation he 
had gained through Parson Weems's spreading of 
the cherry tree story, he may have established a 
chair in Ethics. 

Unlike the situation during World War I, when 
colleges and universities abandoned the teaching of 
German in order to humiliate the Kaiser, the Colon- 
ists waged the Revolutionary War successfully 
without prohibiting the teaching of English. They 
did, however, force students to substitute such good 
old American words as "suspenders" for "braces," 



'.LM...i '-'m*' 

and themes were marked down when the spelling 
"tyre" was used for "tire" and "colour" for 

The alumni publication, variously called the 
Alumni Bulletin, the Alumni Quarterly, and die 
Alunmi Newsletter, was probably invented at this 
time by Benjamin Franklin, who invented almost 
everything else, including bifocals and kites. The 
first such publication was probably Poor Alumnus" 
Almanac, full of such homely sayings as "Early 
to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, 
wealthy, and wise enough to write his Alma Mater 
into his will." 

Contemporary America 

In the nineteenth century, denominational col- 
leges were founded in all parts of the country, 
especially Ohio. In the smaller of these colleges, 
money was mostly given in small denominations. 
A few colleges were not named after John Wesley. 

State universities came into being at about the 
same time, and were tax supported. Every taxpayer 
was therefore a donor, but without getting his name 
on a building or being invited to dinner by the 
president. The taxpayer, in short, was in the same 
class as the Anonymous Giver, but not because he 
asked that his name be withheld. 

About the middle of the nineteenth century, 
women were admitted to college. This was done 
( 1 ) to relieve men of having to take women's parts 
in dramatic productions, (2) to provide cheer- 
leaders with shapelier legs, and (3) to recruit 
members for the Women's Glee Club, which was 
not prospering. Women students came to be known 
as co-eds, meaning that they went along with a 
man's education, and he could study and date 
simultaneously. It was not realized, when they were 
admitted, that women would get most of the high 
marks, especially from professors who graded on 

In the twentieth century, important strides were 
made, such as the distinction which developed be- 
tween education and Education. Teachers came to 
be trained in what were at first called Normal 
Schools. With the detection of certain abnomiali- 
ties, the name was changed to Teachers Colleges. 

John Dewey introduced Progressive Education, 
whereby students quickly knew more than teachers 
and told them so. Robert Hutchins tunied the Uni- 
versity of Chicago upside down, thereby necessi- 
tating a new building program. At St. John's Col- 
lege everyone studied the Great Books, which were 
more economical because they did not come out 
each year in a revised edition. Educational televi- 
sion gave college professors an excuse for owning 
a television set, which they had previously main- 
tained would destroy the reading habit. This made 
it possible for them to watch Westerns and o\A 
movies without losing status. 

Of recent years, an increasing number of stu- 
dents spend their junior year abroad. This enables 
them to get a glimpse of professors who have been 
away for several years on Fulbrights and Guggen- 

Student government has grown apace, students 
now not only governing Uiemselves but giving 
valuable suggestions, in the form of ultimatums, to 
the presidents and deans. In wide use is the Honor 
System, which makes the professor leave the room 
during an examination because he is not to be 

Along widi these improvements in education has 
come a subtle change in the American alumnus. 
No longer interested only in the record of his col- 
lege's football team, he is likely to appear at his 
class reunion full of such penetrating questions as 
"Why is the tuition higher than it was in 1934?" 
"Is it true that 85 ',c of the members of the faculty 
are Communists?" and "How can I get my son (or 
daughter) in?" 

Alunuii magazines have kept pace with such ad- 
vancements. The writing has improved, thanks to 
schools of journalism, until there is excitement and 
suspense even in the obituary column. Expression 
has reached such a high point of originality that a 
request for funds may appear, at first reading, to 
be a gift offer. 

However, if pictorial content continues to in- 
crease, it will not be necessaiy for alunmi to know 
how to read. 

This cannot come too soon. 

^Copyright 1962 by Editorial Projects for Education, Inc. All 
rights reserved. 




A recent graduate delineates what her years at 

Agnes Scott have meant in certain value 

judgments, as she carves her career. 

4 4r>ink or Swim" was the subject 
O assigned ( rather unusual, I 
thought I to me by the Atlanta Agnes 
Scott Alumnae Club for one of their 
programs last spring. I underesti- 
mated the appropriateness of the title. 
When I arrived at the meeting, looked 
around the room, and saw the faces 
of women whose intelligence and 
achievements I had long admired. I 
knew that I was, surely, in water way 
over my head. 

Far wiser people than I had spoken 
to the club at earlier programs of the 
"Sink or Swim" series last year. Ac- 
tually, having graduated from Agnes 
Scott in 1955. I have not been out of 
college long enough to know whether 
I have sunk or am still swimming, 
but if I am still swimming. I attribute 
this largely to the years I spent at 

When I was a student, it was 
President Alston's custom to conduct 
brief chapel programs prior to the 
exams held at the end of each quarter. 
I remember him saying that we should 
be grateful for the opportunity to 
take exams, of all things. He said 
that exams provided an occasion for 
us to review and tie together all the 
facts we had learned in a course, thus 


enabling us to see the relationship of 
a whole body of information. And 
we had to do this by a given time. 
This, he said, was a necessary step 
prior to forming conclusions and 
opinions. He advised us that this 
process should remain with us for 
all our lives and reminded us that 
only by completing one unit of work 
would we be ready to go on to 

It is now my turn to be grateful 
for the opportunity to take an exam 
on myself, to attempt to put down in 
words how my Agnes Scott years have 
been meaningful to me both person- 
ally and professionally. I can now 
reflect on the value of these years and 
can conclude what they taught me, so 
that I can determine why I'm still 
swimming. And, I should add. I am 
convinced that the things that have 
kept me swimming so far will keep 
me swimming in the future. 

What are these things? I made a 
list. You probably could add to it 
extensively : nevertheless, let me share 
with you the things that seem to have 
been most important to me so far. 
Each item is. of course, an outgrowth 
or a by-product of the liberal arts 
education which we all received. 

Adaptability is probably the most 
useful by-product of my education. 
A liberal arts education provides us 
with a wide background of various 
information and experience. It is a 
broadening process rather than a 
specializing one. We are introduced 
to a wide range of subjects touching 
almost every field of knowledge. This 
means that when we come in contact 
with a new situation now. although 
we may not be experts on it, we at 
least are not floored by the mystery 
of it. We are able to adapt ourselves 
to its demands in a constructive way. 
As one example, in my job as assist- 
ant advertising manager of a bank. 
I was asked to make a speech to some 
high school students on the subject of 
the Federal Reserve System. I had 
never studied about this in school, 
nor had I ever made a speech outside 
of the college community. But I was 
able to rise to the occasion in some 
fashion because I had been taught 
how to do research on a subject, how 
to organize facts in an intelligible 
sequence, and how to deliver a 
speech. Although I was no expert, I 
knew where to turn to get the job 
done. Every housewife could give you 
hundreds of examples of how she is 




Since her graduation Susan has done graduate work, 
is serving on the Alumnae Association Board, 
and has been assistant advertising 
manager for an Atlanta hank. 

called upon daily to adapt to new 

Curiosity is another by-product. 
You get into the habit of asking 
"why" as a student, and you cannot 
shake the habit after you graduate. 
We were taught to think, and once 
this process was set in motion, it 
could not be stilled. This gives me a 
freedom I did not anticipate. Because 
I can reason independently. I can 
respond to and accept new ideas; I 
can reject opinions and prejudices 
not based on fact. Living in the Deep 
South as I do, facing integration, 
public education, voting rights and 
other crucial issues so tied up with 
emotions, I am equipped to discern 
the proper position to take. I do 
not have to accept unquestioningly 
the opinions of others as I would 
have to do were I uneducated. 

Resourcefulness is also an out- 
growth of the liberal arts education. 
When we do not actually have the 
experience needed to do a job, we 
know how to get the job done. This 
resourcefulness enables us to be 
adaptable and flexible, and thus we 
can contriute to many different 
kinds of situations. So often men 
are specialists because their jobs call 

for it. But as women, we are expected 
to rise to any occasion — often on five 
minutes notice. Women are house- 
keepers, financial managers, religious 
leaders, tutors, and social secretaries, 
all at the same time. We must possess 
understanding and patience in order 
to be the confidants and shock ab- 
sorbers of those around us. We are 
masters of the miscellaneous. 

Because Agnes Scott has a strong 
religious influence on its students, we 
as students developed a sense of the 
right ivay of life. This takes the form 
of a sense of the whole, a sense of 
direction and an optimistic outlook. 
These, needless to say, are invaluable 
in moments of decision as well as in 
long periods of endurance with the 
minutiae of everyday living. 

While a student at Agnes Scott is 
being exposed to a wide variety of 
subjects, she also is coming in contact 
with all sorts of people of all ages. 
She is learning how to lead and to 
work with her contemporaries as 
well as to work constructively with 
and to build friendships with her 
professors. The most immediate 
limitation on the recent graduate is 
her lack of experience. However, this 
acquaintance with a variety of people 

and subject matter sustains her 
temporarily until experience is ac- 
quired. Her liberal arts background 
has given her the basic tools for 
understanding. Harper Lee, in her 
novel. To Kill a Mockingbird, has her 
character. Atticus Finch, tell his 
young daughter that you have to get 
into someone else's skin in order to 
know why they do things the wav 
they do. Our liberal arts education, 
that is, our broad background of 
knowledge and personal relation- 
ships, enables us to get into someone 
else's skin fairly effectively until we 
gain some experience. 

A special gift to me from Agnes 
Scott was an obligation to care. I 
transferred to Scott from a large coed 
university where individual attention 
was necessarily rare. During my first 
quarter at Scott. I was amazed at the 
way I was taken by the hand and 
led into the life and study of the 
campus. It never ceased to startle me 
that people who were neither related 
to me nor knew me personally would 
take such an interest in me. At first I 
felt that they were almost looking 
over my shoulder and then, slowly I 
became aware of striving for their 
approval, trying to come up to what 



Sink or Swim 

(Continued from page 13) 

they seemed to think I could achieve. 
As a result, I found myself producing 
a quality of work much better than I 
had ever produced before. With these 
people caring so much about how I 
got along, I was obligated to get 
along better than I thought I could. 
And since then, I have noticed that I 
try to produce what is expected of me 
by those who care. My boss, today, 
for example, frequently gives me 
assignments which I know I am not 
prepared to carry out. But since he 
seems to be oblivious to my lack of 
ability, and since there is no one else 
on his staff to whom he can turn, I 
plunge in and carry out these assign- 
ments as best I can. Somehow I 
rise to the occasion more frequently 
than I thought I could. And, in the 
few instances when I have been on 
the assigning end of a job, I have 
found that others, too, produce better 
work when much is expected of them, 
and if I let them know that I care. 

Intangible Products 

Adaptability, curiosity, resource- 
fulness, a sense of the right way of 
life, understanding, and obligation 
to care — these are the most meaning- 
ful products of my years at Agnes 
Scott. After looking over this list, I 
saw that each item was an intangible 
thing. On the surface it seems that 
I have reinforced every argument 
against a liberal arts education for 
women by indicating that 1 did not 
learn how to do anything with my 
education, for I have not listed one 
skill that could help me earn a living. 
And, unfortunately, there are still too 
many people who think that women's 
colleges should be trade schools 
where the student learns one special 
skill which she uses eventually to 
make herself economically self-suf- 

Once I thought these critics had a 
point. When I graduated with my 
B.A. degree in History and English, 
I could not think of a thing I could 
actually do except teach, and at the 
moment, I did not want to teach. I 
preferred to do something interesting 

and useful in the business world — 
the great hub of doing for which I 
was not prepared, I thought. But the 
desire to be one of those glamorous 
career women drove me to explore 
this world. 

Initial Job Interviews 

The first job I applied for was 
the one I have now, and my Agnes 
Scott education got it for me. I got 
the job, also, because of the right 
attitude of the man who hired me. 
(Too, I just happened to apply for 
the job at the right time!) He is an 
intelligent, open-minded person with 
the opinion rarely found in business 
men, that women should not only be 
educated but also should use their 
education actively. He is the vice 
president in charge of advertising and 
public relations for Atlanta's largest 
bank. He needed an assistant with a 
broad background of knowledge and 
the willingness to put it to use. He 
said that with this good grounding, 
the specific details of the job would 
then take care of themselves. 

During the initial interview he re- 
quested that I submit to him some of 
the essays and short stories I had 
written as a student. And I, in turn, 
asked him if he could give me an 
assignment which I could carry out 
in an evening, so that he could see 
how 1 would handle it. He therefore 
asked me to write a series of letters 
that would promote Uie purchase of 
a special series of savings bonds. This 
I did and was subsequently hired. 
Looking back now, I see that he did 
not hire me because of the quality of 
the letters (which actually was rather 
amateurish), but because of the 
initiative I had demonstrated. But for 
me to have reacted to my interview 
in any other way would have been 
unnatural. After all, such action was 
expected of me daily at Scott. 

Since that time, the aspects of my 
job have been changing constantly. 
I have done hundreds of different 
kinds of things, among them: helping 
produce ads; writing news releases; 
conducting tours of the bank; mak- 
ing talks on banking to high school 
students; promoting the opening of 
new branch offices; coordinating 

trade-show exhibits; working on a 
history of the bank; researching mar 
kets for new business; appearing on 
television to talk about budgeting 
(and living in fear that the credit 
man in charge of the "C" section for 
a local department store was watch- 
ing — he would have had me appre- 
hended as a charlatan) ; and, teach- 
ing English grammar to business ad- 
ministration graduates in the bank's 
executive training program. 

For none of these jobs was 1 
specifically trained at Agnes Scott, 
but I was able to do them because of 
the liberal arts background that en- 
ables me to be flexible, adaptable, and 
resourceful. But isn't this the very 
position in which most women find 
themselves so frequently? We are 
called on to do so many different 
things, none of which we were specif- 
ically trained to do. We are able to 
function constructively and creatively 
in many capacities — and this cannot 
be said of a person with only one 

The Maturing Process 

Another thing has happened to me. 
too. After learning how to do one job. 
I find myself yearning to move on to 
something else, something more de- 
manding of me, something more 
meaningful. I want to do fewer things 
because they are for fun, and more 
things because they actually contrib- 
ute to making life better. This is 
probably just the maturing process 
taking effect in me, but I do honestly 
believe that the things I learned at 
Agnes Scott started me in this direc- 

We — all alumnae — are very much 
like the pet cats with which our 
children play. Have you ever noticed 
how a child sits on the cat, pulls at 
him, and throws him up in the air? 
And, have you also noticed how the 
cat always lands on its feet? The 
cat has some mysterious balancing 
quality that enables it to spring into 
an upright position. That balancing 
quality in us is, I believe, our Agnes 
Scott liberal arts education. We oc- 
casionally fall on our faces, but when 
the score is tallied, we have more feet 
landings than face falls. 




The French: Are They Individuahsts? 


Associate Professor of History 

No other European nation has enjoyed such a firm- 
ly established reputation for individualism as 
modem France. Indeed, there exists almost a con- 
sensus on this point. The view has been presented by 
professional historians and men of letters, by political 
scientists and journalists alike. It has become a cliche as 
generally accepted as the older stereotypes describing the 
French as pre-eminently frivolous, fickle, sociable, and 
gay. The late novelist Elliot Paul, for example, character- 
ized the French nation as one of 43,000,000 individual- 
ists. The Swiss historian Herbert Luethy called France 
the most highly individualistic of all nations. According 
to C.B.S. correspondent David Schoenbrun, "France is the 
last bastion of the rugged individualist." 

Many Frenchmen have expressed themselves in a 
similar vein. Andre Siegfried, the late dean of French 
political scientists, came to the conclusion that "individu- 
alism seems to be one of the permanent qualities of the 
French," a trait which was "originally inherited from 
the Gauls and which is now innate in our character." 
Charles Seignobos, one of the most respected masters of 
French historical science at the beginning of this century, 
counted individualism among the lasting tendencies of 
the French mind. Like Siegfried, he traced its origin 
back to the Celts, and held that the French south of the 
Loire, among whom this Celtic element was predominant, 
were the most individualistic of all Frenchmen and, for 
this reason, almost impossible to rule. An Academician, 
the Due de Levis Mirepoix, is now engaged in an exten- 
sive study of the grandeur and misery of French indi- 
vidualism, dealing in the thus far published volumes in 
great detail with French individualism in the Middle 
Ages, the Renaissance, and the old regime. 

The widespread opinion that the French are individual, 
ists, like the word itself, is of relatively recent origin. 
The term "individualism" like so many other political 
"-isms" first appeared in the various European languages 
in the nineteenth century. It was brought into currency 
by the socialist disciples of the Comte de Saint-Simon 
in the 1820's and was gradually accepted into other 
languages under the influence of French political and 
social literature. The first users of the term gave it a 
pronouncedly unfavorable meaning. As has been the case 
with the introduction of so many words, "individualism" 
was coined by its critics, and has only slowly and re- 
luctantly been adopted by its supporters. The original 
meaning of the word was the self-assured pursuit of one's 
own interest and a callous lack of social responsibility, 
an attitude which, according to the authors of the time, 
liad triumphed at the end of the eighteenth century and 
which had foimd its main exponents among the bourge- 
oisie. It was generally associated with materialism in 
philosophy, laissez faire in economics. Protestantism in 
religion, and Romanticism in literature. 

Copyright 1962 by the Duke University Press. Reprinted from 
the South Atlantic Quarterly, Winter, 1962. 

After 1830 the term was also used by conservatives, 
who condemned the mentality designated as individual- 
ism in even stronger terms than socialist writers. Where- 
as the latter considered it as a necessary phase in the 
evolution of society toward a higher form of organiza- 
tion and were therefore not completely unsympathetic 
toward all of its manifestations, the conservatives merely 
viewed it as a symptom of social disintegration. The two 
different interpretations are well represented by the 
views of two authors who have been highly influential 
in popularizing the term inside as well as outside France : 
the socialist Louis Blanc, and the liberal conservative 
De TocqueviUe. For Louis Blanc, individualism served 
as a central concept in his optimistic philosophy of 
history. This mentality, according to him, had its origin 
in the Reformation and had resulted in great progress. 
Although he condemned its contemporary manifestations 
and held that the era of individualism would soon be 
replaced by one of fraternity, Louis Blanc felt that in- 
dividualism had not been without its greatness and should 
be considered with respect. De TocqueviUe, on the other 
hand, saw individualism purely as a recent phenomenon 
and condemned it as the most pernicious accompaniment 
of the democratic trend of his time, breeding anarchy as 
well as despotism. "Individualism," he said, "at first 
only saps the virtues of public life; but in the long run, 
it attacks and destroys all others and is at length absorbed 
in downright selfishness." 

At this time the term was hardly used to indicate any 
specificaUy French national characteristics. According to 
the socialists, the mentality was rather highly developed 
among Teutonic peoples, as it had originated in Germany 
with the Protestant Reformation and had fully triumphed 
in England during their own time. Supposedly, therefore, 
the English nation was either approaching its downfall 
or heading for a catastrophic revolution, whereas the 
French were eminently socially minded and therefore 
called to play a leading role in the coming era of fra- 
ternity. Even De TocqueviUe, who acknowledged the 
strength of individualism in France, nevertheless con- 
sidered it a phenomenon of very recent origin, entirely 
unknown to his nation prior to the Revolution. 

In the 1830's, "individualism" was still considered a 
neologism. A French attorney general of this time called 
it a new word necessary to characterize "an evil which 
has hitherto been unknown; a word," he added, "which 
will pass away, together with the accidental evil to which 
it owes its origin." This was only a few years before the 
term was introduced into English and German and 
started its brilliant career in the vocabulary of political 
and social scientists. Publicists of other countries who 
adopted the term gave it new meanings. As a result, the 
term lost its pronouncedly unfavorable connotation and 
instead came to represent a political, social, or cultural 

The first radical departure from the meaning of the 
term individualism current among the French is found 
in an American publication. In an article appearing in 



The French (Continued) 

the United States Magazine and Democratic Review of 
1839, a highly optimistic and nationalistic philosophy of 
history was outlined somewhat in the manner of the 
French socialist doctrines of that time, but with the 
diiference that in its American counterpart the realiza- 
tion of individualism is seen as the ultimate goal of all 
social and political development. It is surprising that at 
this early date the term was handled with a remarkable 
sureness of touch. "The course of civilization," wrote 
the anonymous author, "is the progress of man from a 
state of savage individualism to that of an individualism 
more elevated, moral, and refined." 

The meaning given the term in this article was com- 
pletely different from the one conveyed in the second 
volume of De Tocqeville's Democracy in America, pub- 
lished one year later. In contrast to the French political 
analyst, the American writer identified individualism 
with respect for human rights and the sovereignty of 
the individual and felt that these ideals were best guaran- 
teed in a democracy. De Tocqueville, though also cherish- 
ing these ideals, held that they were better safeguarded 
in a less equalitarian form of government and never in- 
cluded them in his definition of individualism. Whereas 
to De Tocqueville indivdualism primarily meant equality 
and antisocial behavior, to the American publicist it 
signified freedom and equal opportunity for all. Individu- 
alism in this new and favorable interpretation came to 
be one of the key words representing deeply rooted 
opinions about the nature and future of American 
society: the myth of the rugged pioneer, the cult of 
self-reliance, the distrust of governmental interference, 
and the glorification of the competitive spirit; ideals 
which had been partly formulated before the term made 
its appearance were now, as it were, summed up in a 
new slogan. 

In England the reaction toward the term individualism 
was much more reserved than in America. For a long 
time the neologism was used only occasionally and then 
almost without exception in the French, unfavorable 
meaning. Until the end of the nineteenth century, few 
English authors associated the term with their well- 
established national tradition of political, economic, and 
religious freedom. It was avoided by all those writers 
whom later generations are wont to consider as the 
incarnation of British individualism. It did not appear in 
any of the publications of the Manchester school of 
economy; it is not found in John Stuart Mill's famous 
essay On Liberty, the so-called Bible of political individu- 
alism; and it is likewise not mentioned in Herbert 
Spencer's classical statement on the rights of man versus 
the state. 

During the nineteenth century, French rather than 
English writers used the term individualism in describ- 
ing the English nation. In the first half of the century, 
when strong anti-English sentiments were prevalent 
among the French, this trait was seen as a definite symp- 
tom of English decadence; during the latter half, when 
pro-English sentiments became widespread, individualism 
(held at this time even more than before to be typical 
of English society) shared in the more positive evaluation 
of everything English. The height of these enthusiastic 
interpretations of the Anglo-Saxon mind was reached 
at the end of the nineteenth century, when in works like 


The Superiority of the Anglo-Saxon Race, by Edmond 
Demolins, The Psychology of Socialism, by Gustave Le 
Bon, the constructive energetic, and enterprising in- 
dividualism of the English-speaking nations was con- 
trasted with the oppressive collectivism and centraliza- 
tion of the Latin races. Because of these characteristics, 
these French authors held, the former were predestined 
to rule the world, whereas the latter were doomed to 
decline. It required a bold mind at that time to state that 
the French were individualists. A reviewer of Demolins' 
book who intimated that individualism manifested itself 
much more strongly on the banks of the Seine than on 
the banks of the Thames felt obliged to present his opin- 
ion as an extravagant paradox. 

It was at this time (1890's) , when the British tradition 
of individualism in the sense of political and economic 
liberalism was actually losing strength, that the term 
individualism became commonly accepted by English 
writers speculating on the national characteristics of the 
English people. In the twentieth century, English authors 
have frequently commented on the individualistic temper 
of their nation, sometimes contrasting it to the mentality 
of the French, who, as Harold Nicholson observed, might 
have personality, but lacked individualism. The same 
contrast is implied in a remark by William Inge: ". . . we 
are so individualistic that a Frenchman has said that 
the best handbook and guide to the English character is 
Robinson Crusoe." 

The general acceptance of the term individualism in 
England as well as in the United States was partly due to 
a new and more favorable meaning which the term had 
acquired under German influence. It might seem surpris- 
ing that this positive meaning of the term originated in 
Germany. In our century, it has become customary to 
consider German mentality hostile to any form of in- 
dividual freedom. Yet this view was exceptional until 
the end of the nineteenth century, especially among the 
Germans themselves. Actually, even in the twentieth 
century a large number of German publicists were firmly 
convinced that the Germans were highly individualistic, 
and the only difference between their opinion and that 
of earlier German writers was that they increasingly 
critized this national trait which their predecessors had 
glorified. As late as 1927 a prominent German historian 
called the Germans more individualistic than either the 
French or the English. In some of the statements con- 
cerning the (Jerman national character we are reminded 
of similar remarks more recently made about the French. 
"Individualism," wrote a German philosopher, Mueller- 
Freienfels, in 1921, "is the source of German greatness 
as well as of German misery; it is the mainspring of her 
brilliant civilization, but it is also responsible for the 
vehemence of political passion and lack of unity un- 
paralleled in any other civilized nation." 

The evidence brought forward in support of German 
individualism has been various : the German origin of the 
Protestant Reformation inaugurating a period of religious 
individualism, the belated unification due to internal 
division and political apathy, even the legendary origin 
of all modem political freedom in the forests of old 
Germany. The most substantial claim for German indi- 
vidualism is based on a tendency prevalent among the 
Germans to cultivate an ideal of individual development. 
This historical tradition, which individualism could claim 
in Germany, was, of course, entirely different from that in 


England or the United States. German individualism 
was not an outward attitude manifesting itself in active 
opposition to authority, but an inward freedom favoring 
the cultivation of cultural values and aiming at the 
formation of a well-rounded, fully developed personality. 
This ideal of personal development or individuality found 
its purest expression in the German works of Schiller, 
Goethe, and Wilhehn von Humboldt. It profoundly in- 
fluenced the German mind and also inspired English and 
American champions of strong and original personalities, 
such as Carlyle, John Stuart Mill, and Emerson. 

In the German language, the word individualism was 
not used to designate this ideal until some fifty years 
after the latter had been formulated. The most important 
step in fusing the new term individualism — taken from 
the French and first used in German in 1837 — and the 
older ideal of individuality was taken by the great Swiss 
historian, Jacob Burckhardt, in 1860, when he published 
his classic work on the Italian Renaissance. Individualism 
meant to him in the first place the full development of 
human potentialities; it also included the less favorable 
meanings which were prevalent in French literature at 
that time and which Burckhardt, a great admirer of 
French culture, had found in the works of De Tocque- 
ville and Louis Blanc. The Swiss historian, calling indi- 
vidualism the fundamental vice as well as the condition 
of the greatness of the Italian Renaissance, was not, like 
many later European men of letters, an unqualified 
admirer of this new mentality which, according to him, 
characterized the entire modem European civilization. 

Burckhardt has been extremely influential in giving the 
term individualism increased prestige, and his work has 
been the starting point of innumerable controversies on 
the meaning and origin of the idea. German and French 
historians have claimed for their nations the honor of 
having developed individualism long before the Italians. 
Catholics have argued that the Middle Ages were at least 
as individualistic as the Renaissance. Other historians 
and philosophers, while accepting the facts as presented 
by Burckhardt, have interpreted the rise of individualism 
as the most important cause of a decline of Western 

It can be concluded that in the nineteenth century in- 
dividualism was frequently held to be characteristic of 
the Americans, the English, and the Germans, but not of 
the French, who were on the contrary known for their 
sociable and gregarious temperament, supposedly having 
a predilection for coUectivistic doctrines and expecting 
all improvement from increased state intervention. It was 
not until the tiventieth century that the French came to 
be considered the most highly individualistic people, 
probably not so much because the French people radically 
changed their national characteristics, but rather because 
the other so-called individualistic nations turned their 
backs on their individualistic traditions. 

This point can in the first place be illustrated by the 
new way in which the French and German peoples were 
contrasted. Struck by the greater discipline displayed by 
the Germans in their political and economic organization, 
publicists were inclined to attribute the opposite charac- 
teristics to the French people. In the course of the nine- 
teenth century, France and Germany actually exchanged 
positions as to the opinions formulated on their national 
characteristics. The Germans, who, at the beginning of 
the century, had been portrayed as a nation of poets and 

philosophers, eternally divided among themselves and 
without any talent for politics, came, at its end, to be 
known as a people of blood and iron readily accepting 
authority and discipline, without much respect for indi- 
vidual freedom. This was in many ways the same reputa- 
tion which France had enjoyed in the period of the 
French Revolution and Napoleon, and even until the 
middle of the nineteenth century. Contrary to their 
modem reputation, the French — "those modem Romans" 
as Frederick the Great called them — were until recently 
respected for their co-operative efforts rather than for 
their individual accomplishments. In 1830, Coleridge de- 
fined the French as "gunpowder, smutty and contemptible 
each taken by itself, but terrible indeed when massed 
together." As late as 1850, in his Confession, Bakunin 
(and his attentive reader, Tsar Nicholas I, fully agreed) 
contrasted the discipline usually displayed by the French 
working classes with the anarchistic mentality which he 
considered typical of the German people. At the beginning 
of the twentieth century a radical revision had taken 
place: France came to be known as an intellectual's 
paradise, the Mecca of all artists, peace loving, exces- 
sively individualistic, hopelessly divided politically, and 
lacking any gift for organization — in short, possessing 
many of the characteristics which had been attributed 
to Germany fifty years earlier. 

In a similar way, French and Anglo-Saxon character- 
istics seemed, to many observers, to develop in opposite 
directions. The lack of social responsibility among the 
French people and the tendency of French politicians to 
vote according to their individual interests and convic- 
tions were contrasted with the greater amount of social 
discipline and political co-operation prevailing in Eng- 
land and the United States. The weakness of the executive 
power, the vehemence of party strife, and the frequency 
of political scandals were seen as manifestations of an 
individualistic mentality undermining the strength of the 
nation. "The essential cause of France's troubles," said 
Francois Mauriac a few years ago, "is the extreme 
individualism of the French people." The same idea is 
implied in the well-known characterization of the French : 
"One Frenchman, an intelligent person; two Frenchmen, 
a brilliant conversation; three Frenchmen, a political 

The persistence of precapitalistic forms of economy 
was probably an even more important reason why France 
came to be portrayed as a stronghold of individualism. 
The slow pace of French industrialization after 1870 
was blamed on the French entrepreneurs, who preferred 
to keep their firms small family enterprises, and on the 
French workers, who were averse to impersonal work 
on the assembly line. Another sign of the individualism 
prevalent among the French working classes was seen in 
their reluctance to join labor unions, which, in France, 
remained poorly organized and small in membership 
compared to those in Germany and England. Finally, the 
French peasant was portrayed as clinging tenaciously to 
his small individual holdings, stubbornly opposing any 
consolidation of lots or formation of co-operatives, and 
therefore as the most individualistic of all French indi- 
vidualists. To sum up, France lost its long-established 
reputation of being a dynamic, revolutionary nation and 
instead came to be considered as ultraconservative, 
esteeming individual control higher than collective effort 
even if this meant lower returns; it became known as a 



The French 


country without trusts, large department stores, or 
mechanized agriculture, but with a passion for smallness, 
a place where people tried to make a living by serving 
ten meals at noon or selling five shirts a day and dreamed 
about leaving all their possessions to their single son. 

There exists undoubtedly strong evidence for the 
alleged intense individualism of the modem French. Not 
all French peasants, businessmen, workers, or politicians, 
of course, act according to the same individualistic pat- 
tern, but this is readily conceded by the authorities men- 
tioned in the beginning of this article, and so is the fact 
that at the present time French individualism is under 
strong attack from various directions. My objection to 
the many current statements about French individualism 
is, in the first place, that France has not sharply distin- 
guished itself from any other nation in this respect until 
very recently and that actually one can say that France, 
unlike the United States, England, or Germany, has no 
tradition of individualism. French individualism can 
therefore hardly be called innate. 

The first period in which the French nation manifested 
pronounced characteristics of its own was in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, and at this time the anti- 
individualistic tendencies seem to have been predominant. 
France was ruled under a highly centralized form of 
government suppressing most forms of individual freedom 
and local autonomy. Other essential aspects of the 
French anti-individualistic tradition were the strong op- 
position to Protestantism and its right of private judg- 
ment, and the standardization of cultural life, especially 
in the fields of language and literature, in which the 
expression of personal sentiments or the deviation from 
classical rules were disparaged. The strict regulation of 
French economy, finding its classic expression in Colbert- 
ism, and the extreme sociability of the French, who in 
contrast to the English, the Germans, and the Italians, 
felt miserable if deprived of the company of their fellow 
men, are also indicative of the weakness of French indi- 
vidualism under the old regime. 

It is, moreover, far from true that this anti-individual- 
istic tradition has exhausted its strength in present-day 
France. The ease with which the regime of General de 
Gaulle has established itself seems to indicate that the 
willingness to accept authority for which the French were 
known in the days of the Bourbons and the Bonapartes 
is still a characteristic of the French people today. In 
Republican France, the Parisian bureaucracy has con- 
tinued to control some of the most minute details of the 
private lives of citizens in the faraway comers of the 
country; individual rights, as has been pointed out by 
many French liberals, have not always been much better 
safeguarded under the Republican regime than under the 
arbitrary rule of the Sun King; private enterprise has 
never become one of the mainsprings of French economy. 
In short, individualism as far as it stands for economic 
and political liberalism has remained weak in France. 
Standardization of cultural life likewise continues to be 
characteristic of France rather than of the United States, 
England, or Germany. It is only in France that a minister 
of education enjoys almost dictatorial power in deciding 
on the curricula and standards of the nation's education 


Finally, the complexity of modem industrial organiza- 
tion has not in every respect limited the freedom of the 
individual; although creating a new form of regimenta- 
tion, it has also contributed to the emancipation of the 
individual from former restraints. It has specifically 
loosened family ties and old social loyalties. The French, 
to the degree that they are still clinging to a past form of 
economic organization, have not fully participated in this 
liberation. It is well known that the French have not been 
pioneers in establishing woman suffrage or a liberal code 
of divorce. No one denies that parental authority is less 
strong in Northern Europe than in France, where a 
father, for example, decides upon the profession, if not 
the marriage, of his son to a degree unknown in the 
allegedly less individualistic countries. The persistent 
strength of this form of anti-individualism in modem 
France was revealed in 1940, when Marshal Petain's 
program of proclaiming the family and the corporation 
as the cornerstone of a new social order met with a warm 
response by the nation. 

The question as to whether the French are individualists 
or not is more than anything else a matter of semantics. 
The term has been given a large number of heterogeneous 
meanings. The cautious mentality of the French bour- 
geoisie has little in common with the rugged self-reliance 
of the American pioneer; the English liberal tradition is 
once again quite different from the German cult of indi- 
viduality. Many other nationalities besides the ones men- 
tioned — the Spanish, the Italians, the Dutch, the Nor- 
wegians — have, for a number of reasons, enjoyed a repu- 
tation of individualism. Some of the meanings used are 
actually contradictory. The same political theory can, 
for example, be declared individualistic or anti-indi- 
vidualistic depending on the meaning given to these terms. 
At the end of the nineteenth century, French liberals 
claimed De Tocqueville as a great advocate of individu- 
alism, whereas he himself completely rejected everything 
the idea stood for in his time. 

Accepting all the meanings the term has been given, 
it becomes a difiicult task to discover societies in which 
individualistic tendencies have not manifested themselves 
in some form. Even in the most disciplined authoritarian 
societies, individualism of some form or other will assert 
itself. It can therefore be said that the French are innate 
individualists as far as individualism is innate in human 
nature. Individualism, of course, does not necessarily 
express itself always and everywhere in equal strength. ' 
Individualism, for example, might have been particularly 
pronounced in Western civilization. But even this has 
been questioned. Individualism has been considered a 
distinguishing trait of Bedouin nomads and Ukrainian 
peasants, of Montenegrin mountaineers and Argentine 

It is safe to say that the term has lost most of its use- 
fulness. Individualism is, to quote the leading French 
dictionary of philosophy, "a bad term, highly ambiguous, 
the use of which leads to continual sophistries." Social 
scientists, if it were within their power, might like to 
expunge such equivocal terms from their vocabulary. At 
least they should be fully aware of their relative value and 
make it always clear from the context what type of in^ 
dividualism they have in mind. Statements such as "the 
French are a nation of 43,000,000 individualists" or 
"France is the last bastion of the rugged Individualist" 
are, to say no more, highly misleading. 


Capacity to Change Determines Capacity to Gro^v 

Jever would I DARE, or want to, 
'rench about whether or not they 
read Dr. Swart s article elsewhere 

quibble with the 
are individualists 
in this issue and 

lake up your own mind.) 1 will quibble a bit with their 
dage. Plus ca change, plus cest la meme chose. 

1 aint necessarily so. True, a room may be redec- 
rated and remain the same room. This has happened 
wice recently at Agnes Scott, when the Treasurer's office 
las transformed with brilliant blue walls, open space, 
ew inhabitants, and when the bookstore began to 
urgeon with bright lighting, fresh paint — and mainly 
resh books, paper-backs galore, new publications in 
arious fields, as well as the necessary testbooks. ( See 
icture on p. 29 — wish it were in color. ) 

In another sense, these are not really the same rooms, 
^ou've probably had the experience of redecorating a 
oom. letting all your response to color and line and 
[rape and form burst forth — and praying and declaring 
1 one breath that the children won't mess it up. But 
le children eventually do mess it up, and. I trust, you 
ventually relax and let the room be lived in, in a real 
ense. It actually can become a truly different room only 
y being accepted, by the change becoming normal, 
ood, and fun. 

Nor will I venture into the realm of psychic change, 
eing an amateur in the academic discipline of psy- 
hology. I can only say that in my own experience of 
iving, I am not the same person that I was. Learning to 
Lve with the "new" me will be, always, a continuously 
xciting process. I have changed, and I don't feel that 

am just "more of the same thing." 

Changes have occurred this fall in both physical and 
sychological areas, at Agnes Scott. There are three new 
arking lots on campus, one behind Presser Hall, one 
ust beyond Inman. and the third on the east side of 
!. Candler St. A great, yawning mudhole is the current 
tatus of what will be, by August 1963, a wondrous new 
ormitory. It stands where Mr. Tart's house and Cun- 
ingham Cottage once were. (See frontispiece photo.) 

Another kind of change, psychological this time, has 
nade me realize that we, as alumnae, need to do a turn- 
round in our attitude toward the College's fund-raising 

programs. It was necessary to revise plans for the annual- 
giving program, called the Agnes Scott Fund. This fund 
is now open to all alumnae, whether or not they are still 
making payments on their pledges to the College's other 
fund-raising program, the 75th Anniversary Develop- 
ment Campaign. 

I heartily regret that misunderstanding about this has 
occurred — it is, I believe, a case of faulty communica- 
tion between college and alumnae. Faculty salaries must 
be increased, through annual-giving, and endownment 
must be increased and new buildings built through cap- 
ital-giving. The quickest analogy I can think of is that 
we give money to our church to pay the preacher's sal- 
ary while we also may be making payments on a pledge 
for the church's new building. 

A change of attitude on the College's part has been 
its sweep from reluctance to enthusiasm for a continuing 
education program for alumnae. This fall, a pilot series 
of lectures are being given on campus by faculty mem- 
bers for alumnae and their husbands. I will report on 
this in the Winter Quarterly. 

There is a reflection on campus of the major change 
in the South's social structure today. I quote part of a 
letter written by Agnes Scott students addressed to the 
"Ole Miss" Student Body: 

■'As students of a southern college we write you. We 
understand but deplore the events of the past days at 
Ole Miss .... 

■'We appeal to you to stand firmly and openh within 
the strength of your convictions. We ask that the sound 
of your protest to this violence be heard above the shouts 
of those who seek to be your voice. 

"And when the violence is quelled by your insistence, 
let us, as citizens of the United States, stand together 
through the infant years of the New South. 


-5 ' 


Ir ■< 



/ - 



i I 

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Architect's drawing of proposed new dormitory which will he completed by August, 1963. 

WINTER 1963 



See page 11 



i - H 



WINTER 1963 Vol. 41, No. 2 


Ann Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Dorothy Weakley '56, Managing Editor 


4 The Three Faces of Honor 

Mary Virginia Allen 

7 'Agnes Scott's Old Beau' 

8 'They Want to Be Like Us' 

Mariane Wurst 

11 Movement Is Meaning 

15 Mothers, Sons and Daughters 
Miriam Koontz Drucker 

19 Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

31 Worthy Notes 



(Opposite page) 

A scene from an annual Christmas program presented by The Agnes Scott Con- 
temporary Dance Group. (See page 11) Cover photo and photographs on pp. 
3, 7, 8, 11-14, and 23 by Ken Patterson. 

A winter quarter progress report on Agnes Scott's sixth dormitory. 

The Agnes Scott Alumnae Quarterly is published four times a year (November, 
February, April and July) by the Alumnae Association of Agnes Scott College 
at Decatur, Georgia. Yearly subscription, $2.00. Single copy 50 cents. Entered 
as second-class matter at the Post Office of Decatur, Georgia, under Act of 


^VINTER 1963 

Time seems telescoped for 
the erection of the new dormitory — 
a few short days, and here has shot up 
a mammoth steel structure. 



IT IS SUPERFLUOUS today to ma 
case for honor. The panels, 
and informal discussions of 
week have pointed up the futilit 
trying to live without honor. 

As we attempt to live honorabh 
gether on this campus, however.' 
may find that our concepts of hu 
integrity vary from person to 
son or from day to day as W'idel 
they have done in the history of 
Western civilization. Our notior 
honor may be irrationally indr 
ualistic and self-centered, seekin; 
public acclaim the reflected imag 
its own greatness. Again honor's 
may be essentially social, turned 
votedly towards the society or c; 
for which it is willing to abdicatfi 
own individualism. Or the face 
honor may look searchingly inw- 
concerned primarily with its ini 
moral rectitude. 

The first concept of honor has t 
characteristic of the early perioc 
every culture. It was desire for gl 
and fame, the rewards of exceptic 


Mary Virginia Allen, associate professo 
French, graduated from Agnes Scott ii 
She holds the M.A. degree from Middle 
College; Diplome pour /'ense/gnement 
francais a I'etranger I'Universite de Toulc 
and the Ph.D. degree from the Universit" 




Our concepts of huniatt integrity iHiry from person to person as 
widely as they have done in the history of Western civilization. 

physical prowess displayed on the 
battlefield, which spurred the heroes 
I of the ancient and medieval epics on 
I to superhuman deeds. This primitive 
I understanding of honor included 
pride, ambition, vanity, and vain- 
glory. It is this type of honor which 
constitutes the tragic flaw in the hero 
' of the twelfth century French epic. 
■The Song of Roland. Roland, the 
1 nephew and right arm of Charle- 
imagne, has been put in command of 
I the rearguard as the great army of 
: French knights returns through the 
[ Pyrenees to '"Sweet France"' after 
fighting for Christianity against the 
Saracens in Spain. Oliver, Roland's 
closest friend, spies from a high spot 
in the pass an enormous army of one 
hundred thousand pagans advancing 
towards the rearguard. Wisely he 
warns Roland of the grave danger, 
not only to the rearguard, but to the 
entire French army and to the cause 
of Christianity as well. He urges 
Roland to sound his horn to call back 
the emperor and the knights who 

la, where she was elected to Phi Beta 
3. This article is adaptecJ from an address 
lade to the college community during 
Emphasis Week last October. Miss Allen 
her home with Dr. Virginia Tuggle '44, 
Hamilton Rood, Decatur. 

have already gone through the pass, 
for it is evident that the battle will 
be a fierce one. Roland refuses ob- 
stinately to do so. He is exultant be- 
cause he will have an opportunity to 
prove his valor bv opposing his 
twenty thousand knights to the one 
hundred thousand Saracens. He has 
asked for this difficult position, the 
command of the rearguard. He will 
make it more difficult in order not to 
lose his reputation among his peers 
and his relatives. Honor is of more 
immediate concern to him than the 
safety of his fellow knights or the 
cause of Christianity. "May it never 
be said by a living man that I sound 
my horn because of pagans."' he cries. 
When Oliver points out that there is 
no shame in calling for reinforce- 
ments, Roland responds proudly that 
'"Death is preferable to shame." The 
rearguard meets the innumerable 
legions of Saracens and the flower of 
Charlemagne's army is slain. Oliver 
accuses Roland : '"Wise valor and 
mad presumptiousness are not one 
and the same. The French are dead 
because of your unreasonableness. 
Nevermore will Charles be able to 
count on your senice. . . . You will 
die and France will be dishonored."" 
Too late Roland realizes that the 
tragic defeat of the army is the re- 
sult of his false pride, his lack of 
moderation in his desire for fame 
and personal honor. It is not the 
glory of his cause nor the service he 
might render to others that motivates 
his action. Rather, it is the fear of 
having his own reputation besmirched 
with the accusation of dishonor. 

To modern readers Roland seems 
selfish, egotistical, arrogant, and un- 

believably stubborn. This idea of 
honor yvas, however, the usual one, 
not only in the classical and medieval 
epics but even as late as the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. The Re- 
naissance aristocrat considered honor 
and glory to be the epitome of all 
virtues. Shakespeare's heroes find it 
morally intolerable to be held in low 
esteem. Cassio, incited treacherously 
by lago to become drunk and to 
quarrel with Roderigo. is abruptly 
dismissed from the service of Othello. 
He laments that he is ""hurt beyond all 
surgery"" — ""Reputation, reputation, 
reputation! 0, I have lost my reputa- 
tion ! I have lost the immortal part of 
myself and what remains is bestial. 
My reputation, lago, my reputation!" 

Honor for reward 

Honor which contemplates its re- 
flected image delights not so much in 
victory as in the laurel wreath which 
is its reward, not so much in learn- 
ing, perhaps, as in the honor roll. 
Saint Thomas condemned as irration- 
al this appetite for honor itself. '"Now 
the desire of honour may be inordi- 
nate in three ways," he said. "'First, 
when a man desires recognition of an 
excellence which he has not; this is 
to desire more than his share of 
honour. Secondly, when a man de- 
sires honour for himself without re- 
ferring it to God. Thirdly, when a 
man's appetite rests in honour itself, 
without referring it to the profit of 
others." Montaigne terms vain and 
worthless these marks of honor: "the 
garlands of myrtle, the form of a cer- 
tain peculiar garment; the privilege 
to ride in a coach through the city; 

(Continued on page 6) 


3 FACES OF HONOR (Continued) 

The faces of honor in the Agnes Scott community 

or by night to have a torch carried 
before one; some particular place to 
sit in common assemblies, the pre- 
rogatives of certain surnames and 
titles and proper additions in arms." 
Albert Camus puts the same idea into 
a contemporary context when he 
says: "Above all, I recognize my kin- 
ship with the average man. Tomor- 
row the world may be blown to 
pieces. In this threat that hangs over 
us there is a lesson of truth. Con- 
fronted with this future, hierarchy, 
titles, honors become again what they 
have always been : smoke that blows 

It is normal, of course, that men 
should desire the esteem of society. 
The proverb. "There is honor among 
thieves" suggests that even dishonor- 
able men desire the respect of those 
who share their life. William James 
describes fame and honor as man's 
"image in the eyes of his own set." 
"Thus," he says, "a layman may 
abandon a city infected with cholera ; 
but a priest or a doctor would think 
such an act incompatible with his 
honor." But to say that this desire 
for esteem is natural is not to say 
that it is the noblest face of honor. 

Concept of loyalty 

The second concept of honor is 
that of loyalty or general trust- 
worthiness. To the feudal mind, 
loyalty meant the observance of 
inutual obligations which bound to- 
gether the members of the society. 
Together with prowess it constituted 
the basic chivalric code. Feudal so- 
ciety was preseiTed from anarchy 
only by the mutual contracts which 
existed between the lords and vassals. 
It was rare that a knight violated 
his solemn pledge. If he did, he was 
an object of contempt and an outlaw. 
Ganelon, chosen ambassador to the 
pagan king in The Song of Roland, 
betrays the emperor's trust in him 
by lying and by giving military 
secrets to the enemy. After the sub- 

sequent annihilation of the French 
army Ganelon is tried and condemned 
to die a horrible death. The poet com- 
ments: "When a man betrays another, 
it is not right that he should be able 
to boast of it." Another medieval 
knight, Tristan, betrays the faith 
which be had sworn to his uncle and 
king. Escorting Iseult of the golden 
hair to become the bridge of King 
Mark, Tristan drinks the magic or 
symbolic potion of desire, later loves 
his king's wife, takes here from the 
court to live in the forest, suffers the 
ignoble life of a hunted outlaw and 
dies in wretched loneliness. 

The Agnes Scott face 

At Agnes Scott we recognize easily 
this face of honor for we live by it 
under our honor system, which is 
simply our code of obligations to 
others. In spite of the cost to self, we 
expect to do our duty in order to 
prevent our life together from be- 
coming dishonorable and chaotic. The 
student who says "On my word of 
honor" may not be an honest person, 
but if she is she is pledging herself 
to live up to certain expectations 
which are not peculiar to her. She is 
saying that she will honor academic 
and social obligations, not because of 
threat or force, but because she is 
loyal to the group, because she can 
be trusted to insure the continuity of 
Agnes Scott as an institution of 
honorable people. Beyond the cam- 
pus, too, we recognize this familiar 
notion of honor. We are trusted to 
preserve the purity of our family life. 
We have obligations to obey the laws 
of our land, even when obedience is 
inconvenient or irritating. 

This devotion to duty and to one's 
honor does not find its commendation 
in glory; it is not rewarded by 
triumphal arches and processions. It 
is expected of all reasonable men, 
who prefer an honorable discharge 
to a dishonorable one. 

The third face of honor does not 

fix its eyes on some heroic accom- 
plishment beyond the call of duty, nor 
on a noble cause to which it is wil 
ing to sacrific personal desires in the 
call of duty. Rather, it looks within 
where, as Montaigne says, "no eye 
can pierce but our own." "A man is 
not always upon the top of the 
breach." wrote this sixteenth century 
French philosopher, "nor in the front 
of an army in the sight of his general, 
as upon a stage. A man may be sur- 
prised between the hedge and a 
ditch." This honor, which is "not for 
any profit, but for the honor of 
honesty itself" is a priceless posses- 
sion of which no one can deprive us. 
It is of this honor that Camus sayS' 
"In the conflicts of this century, 1 1 
have felt close to all obstinate men. 
particularly to those who have never: 
been able to abandon their faith in 
honor. I have shared and I continue 
to share many contemporary hys- 
terias. But I have never been able to 
make up my mind to spit, as so many 
have done, on the world 'honor' — no 
doubt because I was, and continue to 
be, aware of my human weaknesses : 
and the injustices I have committed, 
and because I knew and continue to 
know instinctively that honor, like 
pity, is the irrational virtue that car- 
ries on after justice and reason have 
become powerless."' In speaking of 
his own life Camus said "There was 
sunlight and poverty. And then sport, 
which gave me my only true lessons 
in morality. Then the war and thei 
Resistance. It was then that there 
came the temptation to hatred. To 
see those you love being killed doesn't 
teach you generosity. That tempta- 
tion had to be overcome. I overcame' 
it. It was an important experience.' 

Hnnian beings or hollow men 

In this concept of honor greati 
courage springs from sincerity and 
humility; obedience to duty has its 
origin in love, respect, and charity. 
Saint Thomas put this idea of honor 
in Christian terms when he said, "If 
a man keeps in mind the fact that 
whatever good he has he has from 
God, he must, if he is rational, recog- 
nize that it is God rather than him- 
self who deserves the honor. . . This 
is what Christ was advocating when 
He said, 'So let your light shine be- 
fore men, that they may see your 
good works and glorify your Father 




In a recent article in Saturday Re- 
view (October 20, 1962), Lillian 
Smith probes the inner recesses of 
our honor when she asks disturbingly 
what this traditional, segregated way 
of life in the South has done to us all. 
"Have we whites . . . changed from 
human beings into hollow men?" she 
asks. "Where is our virtue? our ex- 
cellence? Did we trade it for white 
superiority? Have we in this cultural 
I nightmare turned into the stereotype 
1 we made of the Negro's soul? Is it we 
' who are satisfied with things as thev 
are? Where is the hollowness we 
I thought we had made when, in stero- 
I typing 'The Negro' we scooped out 
I his love of freedom, his spiritual 
dignity, his hope: Did we think we 
could dehumanize the Negro without 


lumanizina our 

selves?" Lil 

' Smith is not concerned chieflv here 
1 with the granting of civil rights to 
! the Negro. She is disturbed about 
1 what has happened to the white man's 
personal judgment of his own actions. 
' Where is his integrity? Why does he 
not act honorably before he is 
threatened by legal decisions, tear 
1 gas and guns? Where is the glory 
I which Saint Paul calls the "testimony 
of our conscience?" Why do we not 
t follow a straight path for the sake of 
its straightness? Why are we not like 
the ancient sailor who said to Nep- 
tune in a great storm, "Oh. God. 
Thou shall save me if Thou please, 
if not. Thou shall lose me: yet will 1 
keep my helm alwavs fast?" 

The penetrating face 

This third face of honor is cer- 
tainly the most trying to contem- 
plate. Its gaze is piercing and eternal- 
ly present like the eye of God in 
Hugo's poem "The Conscience." It 
distorts in a disarming manner the 
image of ourselves we think we see 
reflected from our admiring friends. 
SYet it is honor's finest face. 

These three concepts, and perhaps 
others, co-exist to a greater or lesser 
degree in each of us. Our concern is 
to recognize each for what it is, to 
curb our self-centered desire for 
glory, to develop our willingness to 
sacrifice personal desire for noble 
institutions and causes, to deepen our 
quiet, personal honesty, remembering 
with Montaigne that "the virtue of 
the soul does not consist in flying 
high but in walking in an orderly 



Agnes Scott's campus was a favorite place for poet Robert 
_ Frost to fulfill his life-long penchant for roaming out- 
doors. With Edna Hanley Byers and Margaret W. Pepperdene, 
he is shown here strolling dowTi Buttrick Drive during his last 
visit in 1962. We will all miss him sorely. 


They Want to Be Like Us' 


IT WAS ONLY natural that the class 
of 1966 would be different from 
those that had preceded it at 

Agnes Scott. But few of us expected 
1 it to be so different, as we anticipated 
I the arrival of the new students last 
' September. 

The first tiling that set the class of 

'66 apart was its physical appearance. 

"What has happened to the typical 
I freshman wardrobe? " we wondered. 

watching freshmen registration lines 
, pass by. Gone were the pastel, ruffled. 

crinolined dresses, the little black 
' flats, the bright pink raincoats, the 
t fuzzy blue sweaters which we had 
; come to associate with freshmen ever 

since we had hurriedly discarded our 

own freshman wardrobe in favor of 

the styles set by our older school 


Fashion knowledge 

We looked at the fashionable 
square, pointed, and "snipped" toe 
shoes on the feet of the freshman 
class and blushed to think what they 
must think of our now three-year-old 
rounded toes. This class was from the 
first what we call "Iv)'-sharp," and 
we felt just a little disappointed 
knowing that they would not look to 
us as paragons of collegiate style. 

We were not totally dismayed, how- 
ever, and soon decided that what the 
freshman class had in fashion knowl- 
edge, it must certainly lack in social 
poise. How condescendingly we ex- 
plained the "rush party' to our naive 
freshmen hall-mates; how mysterious 
we were as we hinted at the advan- 
tages which were ours in having Tech 
and Emory so nearby; how embar- 
rassed we were a few days later when 
we tried to get into the Dean's Office 
to sign a group of girls out for the 

Friday night movie and found the 
office packed with Tech and Emor\ 
men waiting for their freshmen dates. 

We were losing the battle, but we 
would never admit that we had lost 
the war. Classes started, and we wise 
seniors immediatelv seized the ojjpor- 
tunity to show off our superior in- 
tellectual powers. We gracioush 
apologized to the two freshmen whose 
desks we had unwittingly taken iti 
the first class meeting of English 211 
( a course we had so cowardlv de- 
ferred from our sophomore year) . 
We found ourselves drawing fresh- 
men lab partners in advanced chem- 
istry; we timidly asked them to help 
us with our math assignments; we 
bought a subscription to the Atlanta 
Journal after one dinner table con- 
versation with several of the unin- 
formed, unenlightened, members of 
the freshman class. 

After the first week of school had 
passed, we unanimously decided not 
to be so hard on these poor little 
freshmen. We offered them peace and 
friendship. They accepted. We were 

Now we could really talk to our 
freshman friends. We sat at their feet 
and timorously asked them questions. 
The answers differed: they were 
sometimes startling, often amusing, 
always thoughtful. 

Alice Lindsey from Griffin, Ga., 
whose mother, Edith Dale Lindsey 
graduated from Agnes Scott in 1942. 
said of what she expected to gain 
from her years here. "The education 
we get at Scott is a foundation that 
we all need before we go into 'the out- 
side world.' I know I'll have to pre- 
pare for a job afterwards and learn 
how to cook and keep house, but we 
need to study here simply for the sake 
of learning;." 


An English major from Bay Minette, Alabama, 
Mariane is Managing Editor of The Agnes Scott 
News. She is participating in the Independent 
Study Program and is doing her research in 
Russian fiction under the direction of Dr. George 
P. Hayes. Last summer she was employed by 
The Presbyterian Survey, and this summer she 
will be working in the Alumnae Office. 

We asked them if they were study- 
ing more or less than they thought 
they would be. and if their grades 
were better or worse than they had 
expected. Louise Smith from Dunn, 
N. C.. answered quickly. "Studving 
less — making worse grades. That's 
logical, isn't it?" Usually the fresh- 
men replied that they were doing 
more work than they had expected 
to be doing, and that their grades 
were not quite so good as thev had ex- 
pected them to be. All of them opti- 
mistically said that they believed that 
it would not be long at all before 

(Continued on page 10) 


They Y^ant to Be 

(Continued from page 9) 

they were producing better work in 
less time. 

About the differences between high 
school and college life they were very 
explicit. Anne Morse (mother, Gene 
Slack Morse, '41) is from Decatur, 
but she is boarding at Agnes Scott. 
She said, "The main difference I 
found between high school and col- 
lege is time. There is so much more 
free time here. All my clases are over 
by 1:00 every day. Then I really 
realized what the time was for . . .'' 

Mary Hopper Brown (mother, 
Mardia Hopper Brown, '43) came 
from Kwangju, Korea, where her 
parents are missionaries. Her answer 
is perhaps as revealing about her 
previous way of life as it is about 
Agnes Scott: "I find myself much 
more enclosed. Although students 
study, they do not take their learning 
seriously and think about the world 
outside themselves. I find myself sud- 
denly surrounded by 600 girls who 
all seem so much alike — if they are 
different it is carefuly concealed in 
words, Villagers, and Wee-juns. I 
believe that there is too much pre- 
occupation with Agnes Scott and little 
interest in tlie rest of the world." 

This brought us to a discussion of 
the academic or intellectual atmos- 
phere at the College. Mary said, "I 
think there is a real desire to learn, 
and that most of the students study 
because they are interested in further- 
ing their education. But from here 
the intellectual atmosphere disap- 
pears. Interest in books, discussions 
in class, and theories of life end in 
class. I have seen very few examples 
of people trying to apply to life what 
they learn in class." 

Alice Boyd, Memphis, Tennessee 
(mother, Alice Reins Boyd, '38) dis- 
agreed. She commented, "To me it is 
a stimulating atmosphere. I've been 
so impressed with the thought that 
we are not here to learn for grades 
or just to accumulate facts, but that 
we are here to learn to use our minds 
more intelligently, and we are here 
because we want to learn and not be- 
cause we have to." And Anne Morse 
added, "There is a definite intellec- 
tual atmosphere. Nearly everyone 
seems genuinely interested in learn- 
ing, and there are so many lectures. 

art exhibits, concerts, and plays to go 

The problem of balancing one's 
social and academic life is a very real 
one to the class of '66. Alice Lindsey 
said, "I had thought that being at a 
woman's college would make it easier 
to concentrate on studying during the 
week end, with the supply of boys at 
Tech, to date on week ends. I've 
found we get so excited every time 
the phone rings on week nights that 
our studying is interrupted very 
often." (In evidence we submit the 
case of one freshman who allegedly 
received 26 phone calls from 26 dif- 
ferent boys on one night. However, a 
careful check shows that this par- 
ticular student has one of the higher 
grade averages in her class. ) 

There has not been any marked 
difference from past years in the 
number of cases of homesickness 
among this freshman class. A typical 
answer to the question. "Have you 
been homesick while at Agnes Scott?" 
was Betsy Westfall's (Athens, Ga.). 
"I haven't been homesick really, 
though when I went to dinner at a 
friend's home I realized how much I 
missed a house.' 

Religious atmosphere 

The response of this class to ques- 
tions about the religious atmosphere 
of the campus was in many ways sur- 
prising to us. Mary Hopper Brown 
said, "The first two days or so I felt 
that Agnes Scott was really a center 
of Christian atmosphere. But since 
then I have realized that this, to a 
certain extent, is an illusion. There 
are outstanding Christian leaders, the 
faculty is composed of inspiring ex- 
amples, and the general feeling is 
that Agnes Scott is a real Christian 
college. But for so many of the stu- 
dents this is only superficial — they 
participate in some activities because 
it is expected or required. And this 
constitutes a real danger — that We 
think we are religious, but we really 
are not." 

One freshman who asked that we 
not use her name continued, "The 
administration here sets the religious 
atmosphere. As far as the student 
leadership goes, we had this much in 
high school. The part that goes be- 
yond the merely perfunctory is done 
by Dr. Alston." 

Betsy Westfall said, "There is a 
definite religious atmosphere here 

that people cannot escape, even if 
they try. However, many people do 
not get as much benefit from it as 
they could because they are not try- 
ing or do not care." 

And Susan Ledford of Charlotte, 
N. C. admitted, "The atmosphere is 
not so religious as I had thought it 
would be. I realize that there are 
more religious activities in which I 
could take part. It may be my own 
lack of effort." 

However, the majority of freshmen 
we questioned about this issue were 
of the opinion expressed by Alice 
Boyd, "It is rich and genuine and an 
integral part of the College. Scott 
wouldn't be Scott without it." 

Honor system 

Of the honor system, Alice had this 
to say, "I don't fully understand it 
yet, but I am wholeheartedly for it. 
The whole atmosphere is one of com- 
plete trust and mature ideals." None 
of the freshmen we talked to would 
make any changes in the honor sys- 
tem (rules, yes, but honor system, 

We asked them what they would i 
change about Agnes Scott if they 
could, and for the most part their 
answers concerned rules having to do i 
with signing out, or chaperonage, or 
chapel attendance. The most amusing ■ 
answer came from Mary Hopper' 
Brown who said without hesitation, , 
"Make it into a co-ed school!" 

Their ideas about Agnes Scott were 
often quite diverse, but on one point i 
nearly everyone agreed. We asked I 
these freshmen why they chose Agnes 
Scott as their college, and all their 
reasons may be summed up in the one 
given by Anne Morse, "I've always ■ 
had a very idealistic picture of what i 
a Scott girl was like, and I wanted to 
be like it." 

Battle worn, thoroughly intimi- 
dated and questioned out, we seniors 
on the brink of becoming alumnae re- 
ceived new moral strength from that 
reply. The real reason these freshmen 
are at Agnes Scott and the real rea- 
son for their opinions about the i 
school is simply that they want to be ' 
like us ... as un-Ivy-shai-p, as un- 
dated and as un-intellectual as they 
often make us appear to be. And 
considering the quality of the class 
that wants to be like us, perhaps we 
are not really such hopeless cases 
after all. 









.uiies Scott's Contempoiai) Dance Group, 
directed by Miss Kay Osborne (above) has for 
two years presented wondrous intei-pretations of the 
Christmas story. Contemporary dance reflects us 
today — our religious instincts, our psychological 
problems. Its key is simplicity. Motivation, feeling 
and technique combine so that movement itself 
has meaning. 

I Continued ) 




_A.he dance is a special way of 
communicating. The dancers are the 
hostesses; the audience are guests — 
this is a gift to them. 


f " ^ii 

«i^:^^^,^ , p ^£.,„.i„^'mc1Ka^^,:i:.4i^.y.f.■ 


-eligious dance is the hardest to 
show, ahhou£;h the motivation may be 
deep. Getting in the mood is diiEcuU, 
and the dancers must forget 


iach face shows inner feeling. 
Each is worshipping in a different 
way. and the movement is the same. 






.he range of movement is unlimited in contemporary dance, however 
the movement is natural — running, jumping, skipping, walking with 
technique and feeling combined. The feeling of freedom comes from 
spontaneity, and both hostesses and guests rejoice! 

Mothers, Sons and Dangliters 


Associate Professor of Psychology 

EVERY SO OFTEN within a field of 
knowledge there develops a 
trend in speculations and find- 
ings that rings so true you find your- 
self spontaneously reaching out to- 
ward it for more. Such a trend exists 
today, at least for me, in the field of 
psychology. The speculations concern 
normal, wholesome people and the 
findings reveal life patterns typical 
of them. The trend is toward the un- 
derstanding of health, not illness, a 
relatively neglected and tremendously 
exciting area of investigation. As 
mothers, you will not be surprised 
to learn that investigators are turning 
to the cradle of humanity, the home, 
for much of their research. Nor do I 
think you will be surprised that the 
mother-child relationship is provid- 
ing a rich source of information. Be- 
cause I have assumed that you have 
vested interests in what we know 
about relationships between normal 
mothers and normal sons and daugh- 
ters this is what I want us to think 
about together. 

A good beginning point is that a 
child's normality is intimately re- 
lated to the kind of woman his 
mother is (1, 4, 5, 6). What do we 
know about the nature of a normal 
mother? First, she is a woman — , or 
more accurately stated, many kinds 
of women are normal mothers. To me 
the most intriguing aspect of all the 
studies on normality is the immense 
and complex variety in behavior, all 
of which is healthy. So there is no 
one type of normal mother. We must 
then speak of normal mothers, and 
remember that this plural concept will 
be reflected in the differences of the 
specific acts of mothers. 

In spite of the external and specific 
differences in normal mothers, they 
do have some internal characteristics 
which they share. These internal 
characteristics we might call "feel- 
ing-tones" (4). For instance, normal 
mothers share the characteristic feel- 
ing-tone of "motherliness," that is, 
they gratify the child's needs "for 
body care and pleasurable stimula- 
tion in ways that also provide the 
mother herself with satisfaction" (3, 
p. 15). This definition takes for 
granted that a child does have a 
need for being nurtured and pro- 
tected; what it does not take for 

granted is that these needs must be 
met permissively or rigidly, terms 
thrown around so often in popular 
literature. The definition also points 
out that the specific ways in which 
the mother meets the needs of her 
child have been selected by her, con- 
sciously or unconsciously, because 
they satisfy something for HER as a 
human being and NOT just because 
they do something for the child. The 
essence of motherliness is the genui- 
nely mutual, two-way interaction des- 
cribed in the definition: both mother 
and child experience personel grati- 
fication from the interaction between 
them. The pleasurableness of this re- 
lationship does more than protect the 
child from pain or neglect; protec- 
tion by itself leaves the child in a 
void. Motherliness helps the child to 
find pleasure in the mere ( ? ) process 
of living, 

A second internal and shared 
characteristic is the feeling of "warm 
dependability" (4, p. 30) which al- 
lows a mother to satisfy her child's 
iieed to be dependent on her. To 
satisfy a dependency need "warmly" 
a mother allows a child to lean with- 
out being a burden, to receive sup- 
port without feeling weak. The 
mother's interest and reliability are 
constant in times of fun and in times 
of stress. It seems as though the 
mother's reliability in stress may go 
a little further toward allowing the 
child to trust the world than her 
reliability in fun. Perhaps we will 
learn in future research that the 
child is more aware of mother's con- 
stancy when the child is under stress. 

Another feeling-tone for normal 
mothers is a feeling of "individual- 
ness." By individualness is meant 
an understanding of each person's 
need for individuality in his own 
right, for independence without 
guilt, for self direction without self 
doubt (4, p. 30) . This feeling must 
reach out both in the direction of the 
child and also in the direction of the 
mother herself. Mother's individual- 
ness allows the child to satisfy his 
need to be independent, as her de- 
pendability allows the child to satisfy 
his need to be dependent. This is not 
a contradiction nor a case of either 
one situation or the other. Both the 
needs in the child and the feeling- 

tones in the mother exist simultane- 
ously. The mother's recognition of 
the child as a person who needs to 
separate himself from HER, of all 
people, conveys to the child mother's 
deep sensitivity to him, even when 
he is rejecting, and also her trust in 
his use of himself. The same indivi- 
dualness in the mother allows her to 
have a sense of herself. She too has 
identity separate from the mother- 
child relationship. She is free not to 
submerge her personality in her child, 
but to exist uniquely in the world. 
By separating mother from child 
this feeling of individualness helps 
the mother clarify what she wants 
for her child and what she wants from 
her child. Such a separation protects 
the mother from the trap of per- 
mitting the child to make his own 
decisions and at the same time ex- 
pecting the decisions to please 
mother (1). 

Of all the feeling-tones of normal 
mothers which our studies have ex- 
plored so far, the feeling of "maternal 
adequacy" based on clinically 
measurable, external signs of ade- 
quacy seems more crucial to a child's 
good adjustment than almost any 
other (4, p. 43). While motherli- 
ness. dependability and individual- 
ness are vital, maternal adequacy is 
more than the presence of these feel- 
ings. It represents a culmination of 
the mother's own growth, her own 
personal achievement. Adequacv both 
achieved and felt in a mother rep- 
resents the selection of a good 
mother-model, the drive to develop 
in oneself the virtues of the model 
and the successful achievement of 
the virtues. The kind of maternal 
adequacy reflected in the research 
studies implies, if nothing more, that 
the normal mother has an active 
capacity for growth of her own dur- 
ing the growth years of her children. 
As a matter of fact one of our major 
studies states outright that the child's 
growth potential is eternally locked 
to the mother's capacity for growth. 
"The ability to grow," says Irving 
Harris, the psychiatrist from whose 
study much of this material has come, 
"when there is a necessity to grow. 
the ability to learn new things and 
attitudes, when the old learned things 
and attitudes no longer suESce for an 



adaptive mastery of a situation — 
these abilities arise from an internal 
essence as mysterious as life itself 
(4, p. 44)." 

This quotation is partly an answer 
to the question I think you must be 
formulating at this point, "How does 
a normal mother get that way? From 
where do the feeling-tones come?" 
While you may know the answer 
from the best source in the world, 
your own experience, we will go back 
to the research to see what it says 
about the source of motherliness, 
warm dependability, individualness, 
maternal capacity and other internal 
characteristics of normal mothers. 

Unless you have forgotten every- 
thing you learned in Child Psychol- 
ogy, you are already anticipating the 
first research conclusions. Normal 
mothers are the way they are because 
of their own mothers, and it so hap- 
pens, their own fathers (4) . A 
woman's own mothering and her 
reactions to it have the greatest in- 
fluence on the way she mothers her 
children. Apparently each mother 
either continues or resolves some 
aspect of her own growing up with 
her child's growing up. Mothers differ 
in their awareness of this "genera- 
tional continuity" in their behavior: 
some seem totally unconscious of it. 
while other normal mothers say. "I 
am doing this because my mother 
did it for me and I like it." Among 
normal mothers are some who choose 
to reject disappointing or frustrat- 
ing patterns of their own mothers. 
Here especially is exhibited the force 
of the will to grow in human nature, 
for the mother must reject her most 
convenient mother-model and undo 
the unconscious learning of her own 
childhood so that the generational 
continuity she passes on to her sons 
and daughters will lack the pain she 
is able to resolve from it. Where a 
mother has a flexible continuity with 
her past, when she is not bound to 
hand it down without change, or 
bound to hand it down completely 
changed, there are fewer and less 
serious growth problems for mothers 
and children. Incidentally, the as- 
sumption, or rather the finding is 
that even normal mothers and normal 
sons and daughters have growth 

One of the most interesting re- 
sults of our present studies is the 
influence of mother's feelings to- 
ward her father on tfie adjustment of 
her children (4. p. 84) . A positive, 
affectionate feeling of the mother 
for her father seems to furnish the 
ground work for a good adjustment 
of the child especially as the child 

leaves babyhood and moves toward 
puberty. The implication of the re- 
search is that the mother learns 
from the relationship to her father 
the core of her attitudes about adult 
sexuality. When the relationship is 
one of affection, the mother as a child 
can experience, accept and control 
her own erotic and aggressive im- 
pulses. Such childhood learning en- 
ables the mother to continue accept- 
ing her own sexuality and eventually 
to accept the maturation, sexual and 
otherwise, of her child. You will 
recognize the psychoanalytic theory 
behind this research finding, and you 
would be impressed, I believe, at the 
statistical stability of the finding. 

Mother's relationship to her 
father contributes in another way to 
the mother's normality. The kind of 
relationship experienced with the 
father tends to be repeated in mar- 
riage. A fondness for father leads to 
a fondness for husband. More con- 
cretely, when love of father allows 
the growing woman to accept her 
own sexual growth, it establishes the 
probability that the woman will later 
enjoy her sexual experiences with 
her husband. The relationship be- 
tween a woman's fulfillment in her 
marriage and the normality of her 
children while not fully understood 
exf>erimentallv has been demonstrated 
repeatedly (4, 5, 6). Surely further 
research will support the notion that 
the marriage relationship contributes 
vitally and dynamically to mother's 
individualness and therefore, as we 
have established, to her continuing 
growth. If your experience in your 
marriage has been what I would 
hof>e for you. You know that love 
(you will let me equate love with 
marriage in normal people, won't 
you?) that love necessarily enriches 
the lover (2. p. 69) . I hope you are 
familiar with Vjktor Frankl's idea 
that it is infatuation which makes 
us blind: love enables us to see. 
"Love." Frankl says, "permits us to 
see the spiritual core of the other 
person, the reality of the other's 
essential nature and his potential 
worth. Love allows us to experience 
another's personality as a world in 
itself, and so extends our own world 
. . . Love helps the beloved to be- 
come as the lover sees him . . . While, 
therefore, even 'unrequited' love en- 
riches us and brings happiness, 're- 
quited' love is distinctly creative. In 
mutual love, in which each wishes to 
be worthy of the other, to become 
like the other's vision of him. a kind 
of dialectical process takes place in 
which each outbids the other and so 
elevates the other" (2, p. 169-170). 

In the light of such a notion of love 
it is not difficult to see how the ex- 
periences of marriage, all of them, 
are used normally in the best de- 
velopment of the mother as a person. 
It is of value to remember that not 
only is the mother a "lover" of her 
husband, but also of her children. As 
the "beloved," as the receiver of 
mother's love, the child too partici- 
pates in a dialectical process of lov- 
ing and so is enriched and so en- 
riches the other, an idea touched on 
earlier as we discussed motherliness. 
In the romantic and in the practical 
sense of loving, it is the lover who 
provides the beloved the extra ges- 
tures of giving without counting a 
cost that makes life something so 
much more than a process of survival. 
Mother's mother, mother's father, 
mother's husband, and now what 
else contributes to the nature of a 
normal mother? The final variable 
I want us to think about I do not 
have a word for because, I suppose, 
there are really two factors, and I 
want to put them together into one 
variable. The first factor is that 
normally mothers fluctuate in the 
characteristics the research attributes 
to them. The second factor is that 
normal mothers accept the fluctua- 
tion and its results without undo 
feelings of self doubt or self punish- 
ment. The fluctuation in the mother- 
liness, the dependability, the indivi- 
dualness, and the maternal capacity 
occurs when mothers move into 
changing situations and stages of 
development. When the fluctuation is 
down, so that less of these character- 
istics are felt and demonstrated, the 
mother is in a situation which drains 
her energy resources. At least one 
study indicates that the typical 
energy draining situation occurs 
when mother does not know what to 
do and therefore cannot chose de- 
cisively which course to take (4) . 
Two kinds of situations apparently 
create indecision for mother. The 
mother is faced with something un- 
familiar, e.g. a first baby, or she is 
faced with something about which 
she is in conflict, e.g. a crying child. 
Not knowing what to do is wearing 
by itself, but not knowing what to 
do with an infant when you have 
never before held an infant of your 
own or anybody's else's is even 
worse. Not knowing exactly what to 
do about a crying baby makes you 
tired, but it is worse to be torn 
between feeling you should let the 
baby "cry it out" as your book sug- 
gests and your own desire to com- 
fort the little thing even if nothing 
is wrong with him. "Battle fatigue" 



is the term Bruno Bettelheim uses 
to describe what mother feels. And 
now for the first time in his own 
right we come to the one person who 
is left out of the title, "Mothers, 
Sons, and Daughters." At this point 
a "normal husband" provides sup- 
port for mother as she deals both 
with the fatigue and also with the 
fluctuating of her mothering charac- 
teristics. His stability, his compan- 
ionship, his side of their mutual love 
enable mother to survive the battle 
without going into the battle shock 
of feeling inadequate, guilty, or re- 
morseful. Bettelheim, a man more 
likely to swing into action than to sit 
and ponder an experimental hypo- 
thesis, says that normal parents are 
interested in living at ease with the 
children in their care, and at ease 
with each other and at ease with 
themselves. To do this, normal 
parents must be free to believe that 
behavior makes sense when you 
analyze and understand it. In the 
light of this, together the parents 
try to analyze a stressful situation. 
"If I were a child, why would I do 
this? Why does he do it?" The ana- 
lysis goes a step beyond the descrip- 
tion of the situation, you see, to the 
understanding of the situation. In 
his new book. Dialogues with 
Mothers, Bettelheim iDustrates what 
he means a good many times. For 
instance at one point he is trying to 
help a mother who feels completely 
dominated by the demands of her 
four year old son. To her he says in 
part," . . . what counts is the attitude 
of the parents. The same child's be- 
havior can be described as 'He's 
happy by himself,' or. 'He ignores 
me,' or 'He has no use for me,' or 
'He rejects me.' But it can also be 
described as 'He really needs me 
now,' or 'I can be of real use to him, 
and have a chance to teach him,' or 
'He doesn't give my any peace,' 
Now, it's up to you how you inter- 
pret the child's behavior to your- 
self" f 1, p. 201) . If you are familiar 
with BetteUieim's writings or work, 
you already know his great faith in 
humanity would lead him to expect 
parents to come to a realistic analy- 
sis of behavior, their own and their 
children's. Perhaps the word I could 
not find to describe this aspect of 
what helps a mother to be normal is 
"understanding," or perhaps there is 
no one word to cover both the 
fluctuations of the mother's ability 
to mother and her acceptance of the 

Although we have not exhausted 
the research findings about normal 
women who are mothers, I would 

like for us to move on to the sons 
and daughters. We will start from 
the same point with which we began 
our study of normal mothers. There 
are many kinds of children who are 
normal and they vary widely in 
their specific acts of behavior. As 
the mothers do, the children also 
share some things in common and it 
is at those we can look most profit- 

Normal children all exhibit "prob- 
lem behavior" at some time. There 
are times when what a psychologist 
discovers experimentally is so well 
known that his experiment seems 
superfluous. I believe this is one of 
those times, so I am not going to 
provide you with illustrations or the 
compiling of evidence to support this 
first characteristic of normal children. 
However, I do think that you will 
be interested in the implications 
from the research that the particular 
problems of a specific child crucially 
influence the mother's growth in 
mothering (3, p. 16). No matter 
how much she wants to, a mother 
who is thrown into conflicting feel- 
ings of concern and repulsion toward 
a child who throws up often cannot 
show the same amount of "warm 
dependability" as the mother who 
feels only concern. And almost any 
normal child can dent the individual- 
ness of almost any normal mother by 
wiggling out of her reach and 
screaching for the neighbors to hear. 
"I hate you; go away!" The tie that 
binds, according to the research, 
binds both ways! 

Although I have deliberately em- 
phasized for you the variability of 
normal behavior in adults and 
children, I would like to pick up 
from the research one specific bit 
of behavior which often concerns 
parents. Night dreams which frighten 
the child in popular literature are 
considered signs of anxiety in the 
child and therefore "bad." Harris 
(4, p. 150-152) on the other side of 
the fence suggests that occasional 
sleep disturbances occur in normal 
children and are not necessarily bad. 
His research indicates that stress. 
among other things, stimulates the 
child to grow. "Wholesome stress." 
as he refers to it, undoubtedly has a 
limit built into it, but a moderate 
dosage of anxiety, he found, motiv 
ates the child to a mastery of his 
growth problems. The occasional 
sleep disturbances of the normal 
child are the child's way of "sleep- 
ing on a problem" or more formally 
and psychoanalytically, dreams are 
a way of "integrating the excitations 
from his waking life," a kind of 

problem solving with dreams. Growth 
is a twofold process. In the first 
part of the process new things are 
taken in by the child. The second 
part of the process is a matter of 
digesting what has been taken in, 
discarding what is valueless, and 
transforming into a part of oneself 
what is of value. The taking-in part 
of growth makes for change; the 
digesting part makes for permanence. 
At any point in the complete process 
stress may occur. Dealing with the 
stress, even with dreams, allows the 
process to continue and therefore the 
child to grow. 

Since a look at problem behavior 
in children has directed our attention 
to growth, it might be well to con- 
tinue talking about it, because in 
connection with growth we find some 
other characteristics normal children 
share. For instance, at any one 
growth stage, a normal child will 
demonstrate three different elements 
of growth in an integrated pattern 
(4, p. 22). One is that the child will 
show the elements of the stage at 
which he is presently. He will be do- 
ing in part what you think he ought 
to do. He will also demonstrate "left 
over" aspects of the previous stage; 
that is the second element. This 
means that in some way a child 
may always be considered a baby, 
since his behavior will normally 
show some characteristics of the next 
younger stage. The third element of 
the child's behavior will be found in 
embryonic signs of the next growth 
stage. In this way he will always 
surprise you with how advanced he 
is for his age. In other words a child 
normally is too young, too old and 
just right for his age! Each stage of 
development connects it predecessor 
and its successor to provide continu- 
ity for the child's eventual matura- 
tion. It would surprise me if our 
further research did not find this idea 
constant throughout all of life, even 
at mv own advanced age! 

There is another research finding 
related to growth which should be 
fitted in here. A moment ago growth 
was divided into two parts — change 
by taking-in and permanence by 
digesting. Normally in children there 
is a balance between the change fac- 
tors and the permanence factors (4, 
p. 28). Managing change well allows 
the child to experience the need for, 
and to enjoy variety, challenge, 
spice. It contributes to the fact that 
normal children are zestful, happy, 
adaptable, willing to take a chance. 
Uncontrolled, the change factor in 
the child could make him perpetually 
restless, nonadaptive, shifting with 




the wind. The permanence factors in 
the child contribute to his self regula- 
tion, his conservatism; they "ground 
him" so to speak. These two aspects 
taken together in the child largely 
determine his "adjustability, i.e., his 
capacity for psychic growth." Harris 
offers a most intriguing definition 
of psychic growth. It is the capacity 
to learn age-appropriate functions 
and to enjoy the performance of 
them (4, p. 152). Incidentally he 
goes on to add that with age, the 
appropriate functions are decreasing- 
ly egocentric and self-preservative 
and increasingly altruistic and race- 
preservative. This constitutes an 
awesome definition of maturation! 

Normal children have problems 
which contribute to mother's growth 
as well as their own ; normal children 
exhibit a range of developmental be- 
havior; normal children balance ef- 
fectively their ability to change and 
their ability to remain permanent. 
At least one more characteristic needs 
to be added to the list: normal 
children identify with a mother 
whom they consider nurturing. 
Children look to mother, even though 
there are times when her mothering 
fluctuates, as a source of nourish- 
ment and pleasure (4. p. 25). This 
appears to be the major factor which 
allows the child to look on "other 
and later humans as gratifiers," to 
expect to establish other "warmly 
dependent" relationships in his 
world — with his teacher, his neigh- 
bor, his friend, his own child. The 
child's identification with mother 
can be understood most simply on 
purely practical grounds; it is ad- 
vantageous for the child to be on 
good terms with his mother. She 
hands out the food, the comfort, the 
punishment, and the reward. You do 
not have to be very smart or very old 
to figure out that mother has a pretty 
tight hold on things. To take this 
just one step further and see just 
one aspect of the consequences of lin- 
ing up with mother, consider what is 
set in motion as the child takes on 
his mother's attitude toward her hus- 
band, the child's father. The influence 
of the father-child relationship has 
already been touched upon for the 
growing daughter; it is found to be 
of equal influence on the growing 
son. Whether mother is pro-husband 
or anti-husband locks in place the 
generational continuity within the 
family; the identity of the child with 
mother sets in motion the establish- 
ment within the child of the mother's 

So far, we have considered a de- 
scription of normal mother and 

normal children; indirectly we have 
also looked at the connections be- 
tween the two. There are three very 
specific points of interaction in 
normal families which follow the re- 
search findings but may not be ob- 
vious just at first (4, p. 174-177). I 
want you to know these points; I 
hope they sound familiar. Normal 
families are family centered families; 
the energy of each family member 
goes into the family organization. In 
any well functioning, high-morale 
organization the leadership is as- 
sumed by the more experienced and 
mature members. In the case of fami- 
lies parents are the more experienced 
and the more mature members, and 
parents are the leaders. Normal 
parents have avoided the scourge of 
our time: the fear of doing wrong by 
the children, a fear which keeps some 
parents from ever doing right by 
their children. 

The second relationship between 
parents and child goes back to the 
growth problems of the children. 
Popular literature has so concen- 
trated on the problems, that we easily 
overlook this fact: mature, that is, 
normal parents solve the problems 
with their children in such a way 
that the problems are temporary and 
nondisabling. This finding is so rare- 
ly a part of the voluminous discus- 
sion of children's problems that 1 
hope you will remember it, if you for- 
get all the rest of this discussion. 
Parents do solve growth problems 
creatively, constructively, and with- 
out maiming the child for life. 

The third point of interaction be- 
tween parent and child substantiated 
so far by research is that normal 
parents set a reasonable standard of 
normality for the child to reach. A 
reasonable standard of normality is 
always in terms of a particular child 
or type of child ; this means that par- 
ents recognize the great variability 
possible within the limits of normal 
behavior and allow each child to find 
his own place within that area. The 
parents' definition is not too narrow 
consequently. A reasonable standard 
of normality for a child recognizes 
the child's potential for growth, but 
also takes into account that each 
child is limited in his self actualiza- 
tion. Consequently the parents' defini- 
tion of normality is not too high. A 
reasonable standard for a child recog- 
nizes that through self understanding 
the growing child can more "wisely, 
benignly and effectively handle his in- 
evitable" potential for abnormality, 
rather than viewing the child as one 
who is free of the potential of ab- 
normality, or one who has to deny 

this side of himself. The parents' 
definition of normality consequently 
is not too rigid for the child. 

This concludes what I have to say 
to you about "Mothers, Sons and 
Daughters," but before I stop, I 
would like to point out to you that 
you have been hoaxed just a bit. You 
have been patient readers of many 
words about normal behavior, but at 
no place have you been given a 
definition of normality to guide your 
thinking. Even with the research evi- 
dence concerning the characteristics 
and behavior of normal mothers and 
children there has been no general 
discussion of normality per se. 
Webster defines it as "the normal 
state or quality," which does not 
really help us very much. Erikson 
(4, p. 19) defines normality as the 
". . . accrued confidence that one's 
ability to maintain inner sameness 
and continuity (one's ego in the 
psychological sense) is matched by 
the sameness and continuity of one's 
meaning for others." This doesn't 
really help us much either. Many 
other Freudians state simply that 
normality is the absence of inner con- 
flict which distinguishes the emotion- 
ally healthy from the emotionally un- 
healthy. Gardner Murphy's (4, p. 19) 
definition emphasizes the subjective 
feeling of the individual achieved by 
the unity of the personality which 
gives him a sense of identity, con- 
tinuity, and distinctiveness. But the 
definition which means the most to 
me comes from Ernest Jones, the 
famous biographer of Freud. Jones 
(4, p. 18) sets up two criteria for 
normality; the criterion of happiness 
and the criterion of adaptability to 
reality. He concludes his definition 
in this way: "The psychological prob- 
lems of normality reside in the capac- 
ity to endure and the ability to hold 
wishes in suspension without either 
renouncing them or reacting to them 
in a defensive way. Thus fearlessness 
is the nearest criterion of normality" 
(4, p. 19). 


1. Bettelehim, Bruno. (1962) Dialogues 
ivith Mothers. New York: The Free 
Press of Glenoe, Inc. 

2. Frankl, Viktor E. (1910) The Doctor 
and the Sold. New York: Knopf. 

3. Gamer, Ann M., and Wenar, Charles. 
(1959) The Mother-Child Interaction in 
Psychosomatic Disorders. Urbana: Uni- 
versity of Illinois Press. 

4. Harris, Irvin D. (1959) Normal Chil- 
dren and Mothers. Glencoe: The Free 

5. Levy, David M. (1943) Maternal Over- 
protection. New York; (!^lumbia Uni- 
versity Press. 

6. Sears, Robert R., Maccoby, Eleanor E.. 
and Levin, Harrv. (1957) Patterns of 
Child Rearing. Evanston: Row, Peter- 
son and Company. 




I LotiA. 

The College Helps Us to Continue Education 

The thermometer in Atlanta plunged to zero as the 
College plunged from Christmas festivities and the rest 
into an all too short and crowded winter quarter. As 
tempo quickens, so do tempers, and the college com- 
munity, as do alumnae anywhere, longs for spring. 

This community is, as I write this column, saddened by 
the news of our own Robert Frost's death — at the time he 
made his annual visit to Agnes Scott. Dr. Alston will 
speak in Convocation about Mr. Frost and Agnes Scott, 
and we hope to publish this in the spring issue of the 

One thing that lifts our hearts in the bleakness of win- 
ter is reflecting on the success of our pilot program last 
fall in continuing education for alumnae and their hus- 
bands in the Greater Atlanta area. After more than a year 
of exploration, study, and planning by the Education 
Committee of the Alumnae Association and the Faculty 
Committee on Alumnae Affairs, we offered two courses, 
held on five successive Tuesday nights. 

One course was on "Life in Latin America Today." 
Four lectures were given: one on the history of the people, 
by Dr. John Tumblin, Jr.. Associate Professor of Soci- 
ology and Anthropology; one on contemporary literature 
by Dr. Florine Dunstan. Associate Professor of Spanish: 
one on democracy in I^tin America, by Dr. William G. 
Cornelius. Associate Professor of Political Science: and 
one on contemporary art by Dr. Marie Huper, Associate 
Professor of Art. The last night these faculty members 
held a symposium on current problems. 

The other course was titled "The Nature of the Self." 
Five lectures were given in religion and philosophy. Dr. 
Mary L. Boney, Associate Professor of Bible, began the 
series with a discussion of the Biblical concept of the self. 
Dr. Kwai Sing Chang. Associate Professor of Bible and 
Philosophy, spoke on the self in oriental religions. Dr. 
Miriam Koontz Drucker. Associate Professor of Psy- 
chology (see her article on p. 15). lectured on the self in 
contemporary psychology. Dr. Ellen Douglass Leyburn. 
Professor of English, discussed the self in contemporary 
drama, and President Alston delivered the last lecture in 
the series on the concept of the self in contemporary 

All of this superb intellectual fare was digested — and 
thoroughly enjoyed and appreciated — by 92 alumnae and 

their husbands. They were sent reading lists as they pre- 
registered for the courses, and many of these books were 
available for purchase in the college bookstore. We 
charged a registration fee of $5.00 (or $7.50 for a 
couple ) . and from these funds were able to give the par- 
ticipating faculty members an honorarium — not adequate 
compensation for their excellent efforts, but at least a way 
of saying hearty thanks to them. 

We planned to tape record each lecture, but because of 
the hoary excuse "due to circumstances beyond our con- 
trol" (faulty recording equipment) all are not on tapes. 
Some are. and if an alumna, or an alumnae group, would 
like to hear one of these, please write me and Fll send it 
to you. We plan another series, perhaps with a different 
format, for the fall. 

Alumnae Clubs are having faculty speakers, too. Dean 
of the Faculty C. Benton Kline met with the New York 
area alumnae clubs on a cold January night. Nine faculty 
members will go out on the "Founder's Day Circuit": 
Dr. Alston will address a joint Agnes Scott-Emory dinner 
in Columbus. Ga.: Dr. Calder goes to Columbia. S. C: 
Miss Gaylord to Shreveport. La.: Dr. Huper to Tampa. 
Fla.: I to Louisville. Ky. : President-Emeritus McCain to 
Charlotte. N.C.; Dr. McNair to Greenville. S. C; Dr. 
Posev to Washington. D. C. : Dr. Tumblin to Jacksonville. 
Fla: and Dr. Winter to Birmingham. Ala. 

Where we cannot send a speaker, we can sometimes 
send spoken words on tape recordings or records for 
Founder's Day meetings. Some are going this year to Los 
Angeles. Calif., and to Memphis. Tenn. The Hampton- 
Newport News. Va. Club will see and hear the movie 
made in 1960 for the 75th Anniversary Development 
Campaign. "Quest for Greatness." 

Other alumnae clubs. Nashville. Tenn.. for example, are 
planning their own Founder's Day programs. We send 
kudos and a special salute to the Westchester-Fairfield 
Alumnae Club as it celebrates its tenth anniversary in the 
home of its founder. Ethel Farmer Hunter. Inst. 

After Founder's Day. we look fonvard with delight to 
spring and Alumnae Week End at the end of April. 


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Contemporary religious dance can be a form of rejoicing — as is music 
in the church. Range of movement is uninhibited — technique, moti- 
vation, and feeling combine to ask response from our deepest sources. 

H E 

SPRING 1963 


y /• 

All Affectionate Tribute to 
Agnes Scott's "Old Beau" 




SPRING 1963 Vol. 41, No. 3 

Ann Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Dorothy Weakley '56, Managing Editor 


4 Agnes Scott's Friendship with Robert Frost 
Wallace M. Alston 

13 On Not Being a Bearer of the Plague 
Ellen Douglass Leyburn 

15 What Right Has This Man ... 

Editorial Projects for Education: Special Feature 

31 Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

42 Alumnae Association Annual Meeting 

43 Worthy Notes 



(Opposite page) 

Poet Robert Frost caught in a typically quixotic expression during his last 
visit to Agnes Scott in January, 1962 (see page 4). Cover photo and photo- 
graphs on pp. 3-12 by Ken Patterson; on p. 34 by Dwight Ross: on pp. 33. 
36, 37 courtesy Silhouette. 

A spring quarter progress report on Agnes Scott's sixth dormitory. 

The Agnes Scott Alumnae Quarterly is published jour times a year (November, 
February, April and July) by the Alumnae Association of Agnes Scott College 
at Decatur, Georgia. Yearly subscription, $2.00. Single copy 50 cents. Entered 
as second-class matter at the Post Office of Decatur, Georgia, under Art of 

Ne^T Profile 

SPRING 1963 

Young spring leaves make a nice 
pattern against brick rising daily to 
make the facade of tlie new dormitory — 
and several fine old trees have been saved. 


ms'^^-'^* • 





erlr frostr 

Editor's Note: A week after Robert Frost had gone to 
explore his last "further range," President Alston spoke in 
Convocation, February 6, 1963, about the poet's relation- 
ships with Agnes Scott. This article is edited from Dr. Alston's 

THIS PAST WEEK (the last week of January) had 
been designated and held inviolate on the college 
calendar as the time for Robert Frost's twentv- 
first visit to Agnes Scott. We had come gradually to ac- 
cept the fact that, even if he became well enough to 
leave Boston's Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, he would 
probably not be able to be with us in the foreseeable 
future. Even so. we were scarcely prepared to receive 
the news that Robert Frost, having traveled his last mile 
and kept his last promise with us, had gone to sleep in 
the early morning of Tuesday (January 29) of "his 

In a brief release to the press requested early last 
Tuesday, we said simply that we have lost a great friend 
whom we have valued for his poetry, for his wisdom 
and wit. but most of all for himself; that through more 
than twenty years Robert Frost has built himself into 
the structure of things at Agnes Scott; that our affection 
for our friend was deep and sincere; and that we who 
have known him in this unusual relationship will miss 
him in a very unique and special sense. 

The friendship between Agnes Scott and Robert Frost 
began in November. 193.5, when he came to the campus 
for the first time upon the invitation of Miss Emma Mav 
Laney. then Associate Professor of English and Lecture 
Association chairman. Miss Laney had heard Mr. Frost 
lecture at Columbia University and had written that 
she was "impressed with his stalwart integrity, his cour- 
age, and his humor." She continued: 


/ was especially struck by his reading oj "The 
Code'' and his comment that college students are 
like the hired man in the poem: You can tell them 
what to do but not how or how much. I felt that 
we must have him jor a lecture at Agnes Scott. 

Frost's first public lecture here on November 7, 1935, 
was highly succesful. He arrived in the early morning 
and left after the lecture that night. One of the students 
who met him at the railroad station was Sarah Catherine 
Wood who later became Mrs. Peter Marshall I now Mrs. 
Leonard LeSourd. a valued member of our Board of 
Trustees I . 

Robert Frost visited Agnes Scott for the second time 
in May of 1940. Since 1945 he has come each year, 
usually in late January, for visits varying in length 
from three days to a week. 

In the course of his last engagement on our campus 
in January. 1962, Robert Frost made the statement that. 
so far as he knew, our Agnes Scott collection of Frost- 
iana is second only to that in the Jones Library at Am- 
herst. Beginning in 1944. Miss Laney and Mrs. Edna 
Hanley Byers. our librarian, initiated and developed 
plans for the Frost collection in the library. Mr. Frost, 
from the first, was interested in the project and con- 
tributed generously to it. Miss Laney gave to the libraiy 
the first editions that Mr. Frost had sent to her, as 
well as complete sets of Christmas cards and other 
valuable additions to the Agnes Scott collection. Since 


Robert Frost (continued) 

Miss Laneys retirement, Mrs. Byers has continued ag- 
gressively to build the Frost collection. His own ap- 
preciation for her is shown in an inscription that he 
wrote in 1960: 

For Edna Byers, my faithjul jriend and inde- 
fatigable collector. 

When Miss Laney retired from the Agnes Scott faculty 
in 1956. the Emma May Laney Lihrar\ Fund was es- 
tablished in her honor by alumnae, faculty, and friends. 
One of the stipulated uses of the income from this fund 
is to enlarge and preserve the Robert Frost collection. 

We have our own portrait of Robert Frost here on this 
campus. Mr. Frost gladly consented to "sit ' for the 
portrait, pained bv our own Ferdinand Warren, in the 
course of his visit in 19.58. Mr. Warren is one of the 
people at Agnes Scott whom Mr. Frost particularly 
liked. While posing, he wrote from memorv the little 
poem. "Questioning Faces." inscribed it and presented 
it to Mr. Warren. The portrait was unveiled on the oc- 
casion of Mr. Frost's lecture in Januar\. 1959. while 

Mr. Warren and Mr. Frost stood together beside it on 
the platform. 

When the college entered upon the intensive phase of 
the Seventy-fifth Anniversary Development Program in 
the winter of 1960. Robert Frost was asked to serve as 
Honorary National Chairman. He accepted without a 
moment's hesitation, saying that he was honored to as- 
sociate himself with the plans and purposes of this col- 
lege. This brief note came on February- 16. 1960: 

Thank you for the opportunity to take any part 
you will permit me in the campaign to make your 
great college greater. As you know 1 have had a 
growing affection for you through the years. My 
heart's with you. 

Always yours, 
Robert Frost 

It is proper. 1 have no doubt, to call your attention to 
a little volume of some eighty pages that Mrs. Bvers 
has for a long time dreamed of issuing and that she 
has carefully edited. It is titled Robert Frost at Agnes 

President Alston and Betsy Fancher, Agnes Scott's News Director, listen to the poet at a press conference in the Alstons' home. 

I , , 


Edna Hanley Byers, Librarian, and Mr. Frost confer. 

Scott and is now in the printer's hands. This little book, 
which will be dedicated to Miss Laney. is really a com- 
plete catalogue of the primary material in Agnes Scott's 
Frost collection, listing first editions, holograph (or 
manuscript) copies of poems written especially for 
Agnes Scott, letters, periodicals containing first printings 
of Frost's poems, anthologists containing the first print- 
ings of poems in book form, translations of poems into 
foreign languages, Christmas cards, records, tape re- 
cordings, pictures, and many other interesting items. 
Robert Frost at Agnes Scott is being printed in limited 
quantity: in all probability it will become a collectors' 
item within a relatively brief time. Mr. Frost knew of 
the development of this Agnes Scott volume. He wrote 
Mrs. Byers, giving her a blanket permission to use any- 
thing that she wants in making the book as complete 
and attractive as possible. 

Mav I be permitted now to share with you some per- 
sonal impressions of Robert Frost and to cite some in- 
cidents that illustrate these impressions? I have been 
on hand for fourteen of the twenty visits that he has 
made to Agnes Scott. He has been our house guest ten 
times. Mrs. Alston and I have spent many hours with 


Photographs by Ken Patterson 

him and have had the privilege of hearing him express 
himself on nearly every imaginable topic and of obsen'- 
ing him in many different situations. 

Well built, big chested, rugged looking, with white 
tousled hair and blue eyes, our friend would arrive wear- 
ing blue canvas rubber-soled shoes, a suit that he didn't 
bother to press (and who cared!), an overcoat much 
too heavy for Georgia on ordinary winter days, and a 
soft hat that usually sat puckishly on the side or back 
of his head. With a friendly greeting to each of us, he 
got acquainted again with our dog and settled in for 
his visit. 

Robert Frost was at his social best in a small group 
of people with whom he was at ease. He was a remark- 
able conversationalist. Of course, he did most of the 
talking. His interests were diverse, his memory inex- 
haustible, his allusions and analogies both pertinent and 
puzzling, his phrasing homely and often cryptic, and 
his wit sometimes sly, often subtle, sometimes de- 
lightfully "corny." We have sat together for hour upon 
hour, talking about evervthing under heaven! The later 
(or earlier) the hour, the more relaxed and enjoyable 
Robert Frost became as a conversationalist (really, a 
monologist) . 

H you took this man for a kindly, lovable old New 
England poet whose chann lay in his simplicity, you 
were in for a shock. His mind was subtle, nimble, and 
resilient, and his personality as complex as any I have 

Emma May Loney, professor emeritus of English, first brought Robert 
Frost to the Agnes Scott campus in November, 1935. 

"His conversation was often quixotic, paradoxi- 
cal, and enigmatic." 

Robert Frost (continued) 

ever known. Lydia Lyon Roberts, who knew Frost 
well during the time that she was on the staff in the 
Poetry Room of the Harvard College Library said: "His 
very simplicity is complex, his clarity deep." You could 
not pin him down against his will, try as you might. If 
he wanted to take a position, he made the fact known 
openly. H he preferred to tease, to toy with you, to be 
tentative and noncommittal, you had as well let him 
have his way. He would, at any rate. His conversation 
was often quixotic, paradoxical, and enigmatic. He was 
independent in his judgments, quick in repartee, and 
impatient with questions that he regarded as silly or 

There was one question that Robert Frost consistently 
refused to answer — a question that I have heard people 
put to him scores of times in the years that I have known 
him: "What did you mean in this poem?" His usual 
answer was to freeze up (as, believe me, he could do) 
and to say, "You don't want me to tell you in other and 
worse language, do you?" His real reason for respond- 
ing to this type of question was found in a preface that 
he wrote to Aforesaid, a published selection of poems 
distributed to his guests at his eightieth birthday dinner: 

The heart, sinks when robbed of the chance to see 
for itself nhat a poem is all about .... Being taught 
poems reduces them to the rank of mere informa- 

No one ever doubted that Robert Frost's art was the 
central passion of his life. He liked to say that literature 


is "a performance in words." For him, poetry was a 
performance in words without footnotes and without 
quoted authorities to back him up. I have heard him 
turn the full impact of his satirical capacitv upon T. S. 
Eliot because of the numerous quotations in such works 
as "The Waste Land." One of Robert Frost's favorite 
jjhrases in describing his art was "the renewal of words." 
I have heard him say more than once that in a laboratory 
we sometimes see a crucible of quicksilver upon which 
gathers a leaden scum: we notice that when it is shaken 
it crackles like lightning. This is what happens, he would 
add, when the words in a poem come alive. They crackle 
like lightning. Frost lingered lovingly over words, poured 
over them, dug at them, cared about them. 

How many times I have heard Robert Forst toss off 
a definition, or, more accurately, a description of what 
a poem is. Here are a few: 

A poem is "an arrest of disorder." 

A poem is "n momentary stay against confusion." 

Every poem is "an epitome of the great predica- 
ment; a figure of the ivill braving alien entangle- 

A poem is "a thought-felt thing." 

"Like a piece of ice on a hot stove, the poem must 
ride on its own melting." 

[Referring to the way a poet takes a thought and 
releases it in form, he used a familiar figure) — 
"Like a napkin we fold the thought, squeeze it 
through the ring, and it expands once more." 



He referred to the beauty of ivord and sentence 
that one gets in the great poets, when every line 
"pops like popcorn; turns white on you." 

"Poetry provides the one permissible way of say- 
ing one thing and meani/ig another." 

When asked on one occasion whether he would 
define poetry as ''escape," Frost replied, ''No. 
Poetry is a way of taking life by the throat." 

Robert Frost at Agnes Scott! Al\va\s this meant tele- 
phone calls begging for tickets to the lecture in Gaines 
Chapel: an overflow crowd for the lecture, with many 
disappointed alumnae and friends turned away; the late 
dinner at the Dieckmanns" following the lecture: re- 
porters to be scheduled, radio and television interviews 
to be arranged: faculty members in our home to wel- 

come Robert Frost back to Agnes Scott and to listen 
while he talked on and on of poets and their poetry, 
politics, trips that he had made since his last visit, 
funny little incidents or anecdotes that seemed worth 
telling. Each year some one interest seemed to over- 
shadow the rest and to color the monologue. One year 
it was the trip to South America for the State Depart- 
ment: another year it was Ezra Pound's release in which 
Robert Frost shared significantly; again it was the in- 
auguration of Mr. Kennedy: last January the trend in 
international affiairs. particularly as seen in the United 
Nations, seemed to us to concern our friend unduly. 

Wlien Miss Laney was at Agnes Scott. Robert Frost 
received extraordinary attention and care beyond the 
call of duty. Bless her heart, she seemed to feel per- 
sonally responsible for his health and welfare. Miss Laney 
was always the first to come by our home to welcome 
Mr. Frost. She would check and double check meticu- 
lously on every detail of his visit. She did not hesitate 
to make suggestions about his schedule, his diet, his 
need for rest between engagements, and the importance 
of wearing his overshoes and scarf if the weather was 
bad. "She trys to mother me," he would say as soon as 
she had left. Then, with that wonderful twinkle in his 
eyes, he would add. "But she's a nice girl. I like her." 

One of the unforgettable recollections of Robert 
Frost's visits to our home was his habit of going alone 
for night walks. When the conversation in the library 
had run its course, the members of the family had re- 
tired, the late show on television completed, several 
glasses of "Seven-Up" consumed, our friend would put 
on his coat and hat and start out into the dark alone. We 

(continued ) 

Robert Frost (continued) 

discovered years ago that he wanted it that way; he 
asked only for a key and to be let alone. His little poem, 
"Acquainted with the Night," written in 1928, is based 
on the habit of a lifetime (and, I confess, I find in it 
more than meets the eye or the ear) : 

/ have been one acquainted with the night. 
I have walked out in rain — and back in rain. 
I have outwalked the furthest city light. 

I have looked doivn the saddest city lane. 
1 have passed by the tvatchman on his beat 
And dropped my eyes, umvilling to explain. 

I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet 
When far away an interrupted cry 
Came over houses from another street. 

But not to call me back or say good-by; 
And further still at an earthly height. 
One luminary clock against the sky 

Proclaimed the time was neither wrong nor right. 
I have been one acquainted with the night. 

Let me offer an example of the poet's remarkable 
capacity for observation which he knew how to use in 
his art. In 19.57 Robert Frost was requested to write 
the introduction to an anthology of The New Poets of 
England and America, poets under forty who show 
promise. The title that he gave his introduction was 
"Maturity No Object." He made the point that young 
poets have their place and should not be too much in- 
timidated by their lack of maturity. Then he wrote this 
interesting paragraph: 

Maturity will come. We mature. But the point is 
that it is at best irrelevant. Young poetry is the 
breath of parted lips. For the spirit to survive, the 
mouth must find how to firm and not harden. I saw 
it in two faces in the same drawing room — one 
youth in Greek sculpture, the other manhood in 
modern painting. They were both noble. The man 
ivas no better than the boy nor worse because he 
was older. The poets of this group, many of them 
my friends and already known to many of us, need 
live to write no better, need only ivait to be better 
knoivn for what they have written. 

The drawing room to which Frost referred is in our 
home. The man whose portrait hangs over the fireplace is 
my great, great grandfather. The sculptured head of the 
youth is one that has been in our family for some years. 
Robert Frost observed the two representations when he 
visited us in January of 1957: the contrast between the 

firm lips of maturity and the parted lips of youth be- 
came the recurring theme of his days with us during 
that visit. 

Frost's sense of humor was one of the personal qualities 
that gave charm and effectiveness to his public ap- 
pearances and heightened pleasure to personal conversa- 
tion with him. I have watched him on the platform as 
he would tinker with the reading lamp and the loud- 
speaker equipment. I soon learned that this was a little 
device of his that helped him get started. After a few 
asides, he would get his hold on the audience with a 
mellow, droll humor, often brought about through the 
inflection of his voice. He could feel the pulse of an 
audience as readily as any person I have ever known. 
He knew how to set up the laughs. As one observer put 
it, "He doubles as his ovra straight man." Sometimes 
he was hilariously funny. Many times we have seen him 
josh an audience, say some rather odd things, talk 
flippantly about education, politics, or religion, pun a 
little, perhaps, and then break in suddenly with this: 

It takes all kinds of in and outdoor schooling 
To get adapted to my kind of fooling. 

Let me recount one amusing anecdote that Robert Frost 
told us in January, 1958, after returning from his trip 
to England where he received the honorary degrees from 
Oxford. Cambridge, and other universities. Prior to re- 
ceiving the Cambridge degree, Frost gave a public lecture 
at the university, holding a vast British audience spell- 
bound. He began by saying: 

rd rather receive an honorary degree from your 
university than be educated here. 

Then he discussed poetry. When he came to free verse, 
he told the audience that writing free verse is like play- 
ing tennis with the net down. Then he said: 

It's like this (counting the fingers of one hand) 
one, two, three, four, five. And then you play a tune 
on top of that, see? 

With laughter that crackled, he completed his story by 
quoting the report of his lecture that appeared in the 
Cambridge press: 

Mr. Frost discussed the manner in ivhich speech 
rhythms could be superimposed contropuntally upon 
a basic metrical pattern. 

What of Robert Frost's religion? Was he a theist? 
Was he a churchman? What of his view of Christ? I do 
not pretend to have any information that is withheld 
from others. I will simply tell you what I know. 



In the McCain library: The Doet, the portrait, and part of our Pros 

Robert Frost (continued) 

For one thing, this man carried his Bible around in 
his suitcase and read it. More than once, 1 have seen 
him throw open his big suitcase that he had lifted to 
his bed upon arrival, to have a well-worn Bible tumble 
out ahead of shirts, socks, and shaving paraphernalia. 
Frost knew his Bible; he quoted it and obviously felt at 
home in its language and its ideas. 

My second observation is that Robert Frost, in public 
discussion and in private conversation, was much con- 
cerned, I would say almost obsessed, with matters of 
religion — the ways of God with men, the place of faith 
in life, and especially the conflict of spirit and matter. 
We have talked of these things late into the night. He 
was always guarded, did not want to be labeled, made 
many off-the-cuff statements about the Church and as- 
pects of religious living — but it seems to me that religious 
concern was always close to the center of his being. 

Another conclusion is that Robert Frost believed firm- 
ly in God. I have never had serious reason to doubt it. 
I agree with Reginald Cook's statement about Frosts 
belief in God: 

There is genuine humility in his attitude, which 
consists in respecting God's purposes and in being 
worthy of His respect. . . . Frost keeps well on this 
side of humility in identifying God's purposes. 

So far as the Church is concerned, obviously Frost 
had little place for it in his life. He often poked a bit of 
fun at churches and preachers, but it was harmless 
enough. He said last January: 

Eliot is more churchy than 1 am, but 1 am more 
religious than Eliot. 

The late Edwin Mims said in one of his books that 
Robert Frost wrote as if no Christ had ever lived. This 
shocks me, but I have some difficulty answering it. Frost 
has few references to Christ in his poems. He did, ] 
think, exemplify and reflect many qualities derived from 
Christ, though he probably would not have thought it 
important or proper to give Christ credit for them. In 
his preoccupation with the spirit-matter conflict, Frost 
said this in 1958 when presented with a metal by the 
Poetry Society: 

We have to duff into the material at the risk of 
the spirit. . . . Our religion, our country, God him- 
self by descending into the flesh shoived this duffing 
into the material. . . . 

I wager that you have never heard anybody in your 
whole life describe the Incarnation as God "duffing into 
the material"! 


At his eighty-eighth birthday party in Washington last 
March, Frost recited the poem that is used as the pre- 
face of his new volume. In the Clearing. The first lines 
of the poem constitute a great affirmation of this ''duff- 
ing into the material: 

But God's own descent 
Into flesh was meant 
As a demonstration 
That the supreme merit 
Lay in risking spirit 
In substantiation. 

My conclusion is that Frost was a deeply religious man 
who thought constantly about God and the deep things 
in human experience — but who was by no means an 
adequate or competent Christian theologian. 

When I shook hands with Robert Frost on his eighty- 
eighth birthday, he said to me that he had been so ill 
in Miami after leaving Agnes Scott that he had peeped 
in to see what it looks like in the "great Beyond." Then 
he added in characteristic fashion, "I like it better here; 
I turned around and decided to come back." In the 
early morning of Tuesday, January 29, I think Someone 
very important to Robert Frost took him by the arm, told 
him authentically that his lover's quarrel with the world 
had gone long enough, and led him through a door into 
a place where, for all his protesting, "it is likely to go 

Mrs. Byers and Mrs. Pepperdene, associafe professor of English, stroll the 
campus with Mr. Frost. 


Miss Leyburn 

THE DEATH OF Canius in 
January. 1960 in the ap- 
parently senseless automobile 
accident which seemed almost an 
image of the meaningless suffering of 
man about which he often wrote, left 
a gap in the spiritual resources of 
our century which cannot be filled. 
The succession of deaths of distin- 
guished writers which has followed 
and the impression we have since the 
loss of Heming-\vay and Faulkner 
within a few months of each other, 
of the virtual wiping out of an 
American literary generation does 
nothing to mitigate the feeling of 
shock with which the ivhole reading 
ivorld received the news of Camus' 
ieath. Boswell quotes William Hamil- 
ton as saying after Johnson's death: 
'He has made a chasm, which not 
Duly nothing can fill up, but which 
nothing has a tendency to fill up. — 
Johnson is dead. — Let us go to the 
next best: — there is nobody; — no 
nan can be said to put you in mind 
of Johnson." Hamilton's comment 
ibout Johnson, which voiced the 
feeling of many of his generation, ex- 
jreses also the way many people felt 
ibout the death of Camus. And the 
sense of irreparable loss left by both 
nen come, I think, from the same 
source. Both were major writers of 
Jieir day; but what made countless 
aeople who had never seen them 
nourn them with intensely personal 
jrief was not their specifically liter- 
iry gifts. It was rather the immense 
power each had to fortify the spirit 

On Not Being A Bearer 
Of the Plague 


Editor's Note: Honor Emphasis Week at Agnes Scott this year was marked 
by particularly pertinent talks in chapel. Dr. Ellen Douglass Leyburn, professor 
of English and alumna, Class of 1927, spoke in Convocation that week. Here 
are her observations on the integrity of the human being. 

and to communicate in times of the 
disintegration of established stand- 
ards and of dislocation of attitudes 
on which people had depended, the 
feeling that the dignity of man en- 
dures — and that it consists in his in- 
tegrity. Both gave to distraught 
generations of men the challenge of 
tlie high calling of being fully human, 
of living honorably in the midst of 

Of all Camus' books, the one which 
I think most jjowerfully distills his 
sense of life is The Plague. As tliose 
of you who have read it are aware, 
it is an allegorical novel, the surface 
level of which is an almost unbear- 
ably realistic rendering of the details 
of a visitation of bubonic plague 
upon the specific city of Oran. But 
for the Frenchmen who read it when 
it appeared in the forties, tlie plague 
which isolated the city was the Ger- 
man occupation, and Oran was 
France. For readers of all times and 
places, Oran is the world; and the 
plague is evil itself. In depicting the 
physical plague of the surface story, 
Camus spares us none of the horrors 
of the death staggers of the first in- 
fected rats and then the agonies of 
the human victims. But the impres- 
sion which the book leaves is not 
that of a grisly horror story. There 
would have been no point in a mere 
detailing of the ravages of disease for 
an age which had witnessed the man- 
made horrors of Buchenwald. The 
focus of Camus' novel is on the com- 
pletely unspectacular work of the 

doctor Rieux and his unassuming 
friend Tarrou, and indeed all the 
major characters, as they go quietly 
about combating the plague. They 
know that all of their intense exer- 
tion, which exhausts the doctor and 
finally kills Tarrou, will not stop the 
plague ujitil it has run its course. 
.And yet people of all walks of life 
from the simple clerk. Grand, to the 
magistrate, Orthon, work with all 
their strength against the pervasive 
and mysteriously powerful force 
which they know that they cannot 
conquer. They spend themselves with 
no sense of heroism. Rieux speaks 
of the joint effort which he organizes 
as superhuman; but of what he does 
himself, simply as his duty, or his 
task. And Tarrou, in one of the rare 
moments when he speaks of himself 
and his motives, says, "I know only 
tliat it is necessary to do what is 
necessary not to be a pestifere — a 
bearer of the plague.'" "What interests 
me is to be a man." It is with no 
idea of being saints or heroes that 
they engage in the unequal contest. 
The struggle is simply what they 
must undertake becaus of their in- 
tegrity as human beings. It is tlieir 
honor as men which motivates them. 
\ ou may wonder why I speak at 
such length about a novel when I 
have been asked to speak about 
honor at Agnes Scott. Perhaps you 
feel like exclaiming as Chaucer's 
friar does after the Wife of Bath's 
recital of her life story. "This is a 
long preamble of a tale." But if you 



On Not Being A Bearer Of the Plague 

continued from p. 13 

will consider the import of Camus' 
novel, you wiU see that I have given 
you the tale itself. 

Our honor is not, I think, a mat- 
ter of the honor system, which our 
college rightly cherishes, but of our 
whole affirmation of our highest 
integrity against the dishonor which 
besets us on every side; the dishonor 
which lurks within ourselves when 
we are tempted to judge our own 
failings more lightly than those of 
others, when it seems easy to evade 
the responsibility of thinking clearly 
or of behaving magnanimously with 
the lame and false excuse that our 
defection hurts no one but ourselves; 
the dishonor which springs up 
around us on the campus when lack 
of time or the desire of popularity 
or sheer unconcern makes us yield 
to pressures which we recognize as 
unworthy and keeps us from speak- 
ing when we could clarify issues or 
propels us into speaking in ways of 
which we are aftenvard ashamed; 
the dishonor which pervades the 
larger world, where we are con- 
stantly exposed to the philosophy that 
whatever a person can get away with 
is all right, where pride in honest 
workmanship is a rarity, and political 
chicanery is the order of the day 
and we grow used to hearing the 
words that belonged to the old decen- 
cies and high commitments so twisted 
as to have lost all meaning. In a 
community like ours, I should hope 
that we could take for granted a 
common feeling that our names are 
the sign of ourselves and that when 
we attach them to work, we intend 
to signify that it is our own; and 
that when we agree to abide by cer- 
tain rules which make community 
life possible, we are giving a promise 
without some secret reservation which 
makes it meaningless. But we are all 
subject to a thousand much subtler 
temptations tlian those of cheating 
or breaking rules. The sinister 
forces working against our real in- 
tegrity are as powerful and as per- 
vasive and as sly in attack as the 

bacillus of the plague and are present 
in every false assumption and pre- 
judiced conclusion which we let go 

I think Camus was right in as- 
suming that life as we know it on 
this earth will always be subject to 
outbreaks of plague. One small con- 
solation for his death was that he did 
not live to see the final bitterness of 
the fighting in his deeply cherished 
Oran, the plague of hatred and mis- 
representation which he had struggled 
against for years in both French and 
Algerians with as passionate a devo- 
tion as Rieux brought to his task, 
his duty, of fighting the bacillus 
brought by the rats. Perhaps there 
will always be an Algeria, an Ole 
Miss, a Berlin Wall, a Cuba, to cloud 
the honesty of our thought and to 
act as the plague upon our integrity 
as human beings. But integrity is 
one of the old great words which we 
can still use with a feeling of the 
richness of its meaning. It retains 
the sense of wholeness which is in 
its L^atin origin; and when we speak 
of a man's integrity, we assert some- 
thing about his entire character which 
means that we trust him to think 
without self-interest and to act 
honorably and with regard to the 
common good in any situation large 
or small which tests his private 
thought. It is a matter of the com- 
plete code by which he lives. 

For four years at Agnes Scott, 
which as a college is committed to 
integrity and to the object of per- 
mitting you to be your best selves, 
you have what Howard Lowry calls 
in the essay some of you have re- 
cently studied, "the human privi- 
lege": the chance to make "deliber- 
ate choice of the values you will 
honor and serve," the chance to 
develop "the holy gift of discrimina- 
tion" on which resistance to shod- 
diness of mind and flabbiness of 
character depends. In the age of the 
atomic bomb, and in this immediate 
moment of peculiar peril, we may 
feel that we cannot do much about 

the physical survival of the human 
race; but each of us can do some- 
thing about the small orbit of in- 
fluence of which we are the center 
whether we wish to be or not. And 
we can be very sure that if our 
bodies survive, the survival of 
humanness itself, of all that gives 
meaning to the word humanity, of the 
chance to live as self-respecting 
human beings — not just for our- 
selves, but for our fellows — depends 
on us and on people like us who 
have the capacity for thought and 
the opportunity to think honestly. We 
may never be able to wipe out the 
plague; but in the clarity of thought 
and the moral courage we bring to 
bear in combating it, consists our 
very identity, our integrity as human 
beings and the opportunity to make 
such identity possible for others. I 
should like to leave with you for 
pondering in relation to your own 
goals, Tarrou's quiet statement that 
it is necessary not to be a bearer of 
the plague. 

Academic freedom, full of pros 
for professors and cons for mis- 
informed or uninformed laymen, 
is a cornerstone of the integrity 
of institutions of higher educa- 
tion. Agnes Scott's Board of Trus- 
tees approved this statement on 
this subject May 11, 1956: "We 
ore proud of a tradition that as- 
sumes and safeguards the free- 
dom of faculty members to think, 
to speak, to write, and to act. It 
is expected that faculty members 
will exercise this freedom with 
due regard for the purposes and 
ideals of the College, with com- 
mon sense, and with a maturity 
that discriminates between the 
irresponsibility of license and the 
responsibility of true liberty." 
The insert, opposite, on academic 
freedom was written for exclu- 
sive publication in alumni maga- 






HE HOLDS a position of power equaled by few occu- 
pations in our society. 

His influence upon the rest of us — and upon our 
children — is enormous. 

His place in society is so critical that no totali- 
tarian state would (or does) trust him fully. Yet in 
our country his fellow citizens grant him a greater 
degree of freedom than they grant even to them- 

He is a college teacher. It would be difficult to 
exaggerate the power that he holds. 

► He originates a large part of our society's new 
ideas and knowledge. 

► He is the interpreter and disseminator of the 
knowledge we have inherited from the past. 

► He makes discoveries in science that can both 
kill us and heal us. 

► He develops theories that can change our eco- 
nomics, our poUtics, our social structures. 

► As the custodian, discoverer, challenger, tester, 
and interpreter of knowledge he then enters a class- 
room and tells our young people what he knows — or 
what he thinks he knows — and thus influences the 
thinking of millions. 

What right has this man to such power and in- 

Who supervises him, to whom we entrust so 

Do we the people? Do we, the parents whose 
children he instructs, the regents or trustees whose 
institutions he staffs, the taxpayers and philan- 
thropists by whose money he is sustained? 

On the contrary: We arm him with safeguards 
against our doing so. 

What can we be thinking of, to permit such a 
system as this? 

Copyright 1963 by Editorial Projects for Education 

HdVinO id63S ^^*^ disseminating them, is a 

risky business. It has always 

been so — and therein lies a strange paradox. The msirch 

of civilization has been quick or slow in direct ratio to 

the production, testing, and acceptance of ideas; yet 
virtually all great ideas were opposed when they were 
introduced. Their authors and teachers have been cen- 
sured, ostracized, exiled, martyred, and crucified — 

usually because the ideas clashed with an accepted set 
of beUefs or prejudices or with the interests of a ruler 
or privileged class. 

Are we wiser and more receptive to ideas today? 

Even in the Western world, although methods of pun- 
ishment have been refined, the propagator of a new 
idea may find himself risking his social status, his politi- 
cal acceptability, his job, and hence his very livelihood. 

For the teacher: special 
risks, special rights 

NORMALLY, in our society, we are wary of per- 
sons whose positions give them an oppor- 
tunity to exert unusual power and influence. 

But we grant the college teacher a degree of 
freedom far greater than most of the rest of us 

Our reasoning comes from a basic fact about our 

Its vitality flows from, and is sustained by, ideas. 

Ideas in science, ideas in medicine, ideas in poli- 
tics. Ideas that sometimes rub people the wrong 
way. Ideas that at times seem pointless. Ideas that 
may alarm, when first broached. Ideas that may be 
so novel or revolutionary that some persons may 
propose that they be suppressed. Ideas — all sorts — 
that provide the sinews of our civilization. 

They will be disturbing. Often they will irritate. 

But the more freely they are produced — and the 
more rigorously they are tested — the more surely 
wiU our civihzation stay alive. 

THIS IS THE THEORY. Applying it, man has de- 
veloped institutions for the specific purpose of 
incubating, nourishing, evaluating, and spread- 
ing ideas. They are our colleges and universities. As 
their function is unique, so is the responsibility with 
which we charge the man or woman who staffs them. 

We give the college teacher the professional duty 
of pursuing knowledge — and of conveying it to oth- 
ers — with complete honesty and open-mindedness. 
We tell him to find errors in what we now know. 
We tell him to plug the gaps in it. We tell him to 
add new material to it. 

We tell him to do these things without fear of the 
consequences and without favor to any interest save 
the pursuit of truth. 

We know — and he knows — that to meet this re- 
sponsibility may entail risk for the college teacher. 
The knowledge that he develops and then teaches to 
others wiU frequently produce ground-shaking re- 

It will lead at times to weapons that at the press 
of a button can erase human Hves. Conversely, it 
will lead at other times to medical miracles that 
win save human lives. It may unsettle theology, as 

did Darwinian biology in the late 1800's, and as did 
countless other discoveries in earlier centuries. Con- 
versely, it may confirm or strengthen the elements 
of one's faith. It will produce intensely personal 
results: the loss of a job to automation or, con- 
versely, the creation of a job in a new industry. 

Dealing in ideas, the teacher may be subjected to 
strong, and at times bitter, criticism. It may come 
from unexpected quarters: even the man or woman 
who is well aware that free research and education 
are essential to the common good may become 
understandably upset when free research and edu- 
cation affect his own hvelihood, his own customs, 
his own beliefs. 

And, under stress, the critics may attempt to 
coerce the teacher. The twentieth century has its 
own versions of past centuries' persecutions: social 
ostracism for the scholar, the withdrawal of finan- 
cial support, the threat of political sanctions, an 
attempt to deprive the teacher of his job. 

Wherever coercion has been widely applied — in 
Nazi Germany, in the Soviet Union — the develop- 
ment of ideas has been seriously curtailed. Were 

such coercion to succeed here, the very sinews of our 
civilization would be weakened, leaving us without 

WE RECOGNIZE these facts. So we have de- 
veloped special safeguards for ideas, by 
developing special safeguards for him who 
fosters ideas: the college teacher. 

We have developed these safeguards in the calm 
(and civilized) realization that they are safeguards 
against our own impetuousness in times of stress. 
They are a declaration of our wiUingness to risk the 
consequences of the scholar's quest for truth. They 
are, in short, an expression of our behef that we 
should seek the truth because the truth, in time, 
shall make us free. 

What the teacher's 
special rights consist of 

THE SPECIAL FREEDOM that We grant to a 
college teacher goes beyond anything guaran- 
teed by law or constitution. 

As a citizen like the rest of us, he has the right 
to speak critically or unpopularly without fear of 
governmental reprisal or restraint. 

As a teacher enjoying a special freedom, however, 
he has the right to speak without restraint not only 
from government but from almost any other source, 
including his own employer. 

Thus — although he draws his salary from a col- 
lege or university, holds his title in a college or 
university, and does his work at a college or uni- 
versity — he has an independence from his employer 
which in most other occupations would be denied 
to him. 

Here are some of the rights he enjoys: 

► He may, if his honest thinking dictates, expound 
views that clash with those held by the vast ma- 
jority of his fellow countrymen. He will not be 
restrained from doing so. 

► He may, if his honest thinking dictates, pub- 
licly challenge the findings of his closest colleagues, 
even if they outrank him. He will not be restrained 
from doing so. 

► He may, if his honest thinking dictates, make 
statements that oppose the views of the president 
of his college, or of a prominent trustee, or of a 
generous benefactor, or of the leaders of the state 
legislature. No matter how much pain he may bring 
to such persons, or to the college administrators 
entrusted with maintaining good relations with 
them, he will not be restrained from doing so. 

Such freedom is not written into law. It exists 
on the college campus because (1) the teacher claims 

and enforces it and (2) the public, although wincing 
on occasion, grants the validity of the teacher's 

WE GRANT the teacher this special freedom 
for our own benefit. 
Although "orthodox" critics of educa- 
tion frequently protest, there is a strong experi- 
mental emphasis in coUege teaching in this country. 
This emphasis owes its existence to several in- 
fluences, including the utilitarian nature of our 
society; it is one of the ways in which our institu- 


tions of higher education differ from many in 

Hence we often measure the effectiveness of our 
colleges and universities by a pragmatic yardstick: 
Does our society derive a practical benefit from 
their practices? 

The teacher's special freedom meets this test. 
The unfettered mind, searching for truth in science, 
in philosophy, in social sciences, in engineering, in 
professional areas — and then teaching the findings 
to miUions — has produced impressive practical re- 
sults, whether or not these were the original ob- 
jectives of its search: 

The technology that produced instruments of 
victory in World War II. The sciences that have 
produced, in a matter of decades, incredible gains 
in man's struggle against disease. The science and 
engineering that have taken us across the threshold 
of outer space. The dazzling progress in agricultural 
productivity. The damping, to an unprecedented 
degree, of wild fluctuations in the business cycle. 
The appearance and application of a new architec- 
ture. The development of a "scientific approach" in 
the management of business and of labor unions. 
The ever-increasing maturity and power of our 
historians, literary critics, and poets. The gradua- 
tion of hundreds of thousands of college-trained 
men and women with the wit and skill to learn and 
broaden and apply these things. 

Would similar results have been possible without 
campus freedom? In moments of national panic (as 
when the Russians appear to be outdistancing us in 
the space race), there are voices that suggest that 
less freedom and more centralized direction of our 
educational and research resources would be more 
"eflScient." Disregard, for a moment, the fact that 
such contentions display an appalling ignorance 
and indifference about the fimdamental philosophies 
of freedom, and answer them on their own ground. 

Weighed carefully, the evidence seems generally to 
support the contrary view. Freedom does work — 
quite practically. 

Many point out that there are even more im- 
portant reasons for supporting the teacher's special 
freedom than its practical benefits. Says one such 
person, the conservative writer RusseU Kirk: 

"I do not beheve that academic freedom deserves 
preservation chiefly because it 'serves the commu- 
nity,' although this incidental function is important. 
I think, rather, that the principal importance of 
academic freedom is the opportunity it affords for 
the highest development of private reason and im- 
agination, the improvement of mind and heart by 
the apprehension of Truth, whether or not that de- 
velopment is of any immediate use to 'democratic 

The conclusion, however, is the same, whether the 
reasoning is conducted on practical, philosophical, 
or religious grounds — or on all three: The unusual 
freedom claimed by (and accorded to) the college 
teacher is strongly justified. 

"This freedom is immediately apphcable only to a 
limited number of individuals," says the statement 
of principles of a professors' organization, "but it is 
profoundly important for the public at large. It safe- 
guards the methods by which we explore the un- 
known and test the accepted. It may afford a key to 
open the way to remedies for bodily or social His, or 
it may confirm our faith in the familiar. Its preser- 
vation is necessary if there is to be scholarship in 
any true sense of the word. The advantages accrue 
as much to the pubKc as to the scholars themselves." 

Hence we give teachers an extension of freedom — 
academic freedom — that we give to no other group 
in our society: a special set of guarantees designed to 
encourage and insure their boldness, their forth- 
rightness, their objectivity, and (if necessary) their 
criticism of us who maintain them. 

The idea works most 
of the time, but . . . 

■ IKE MANY good theories, this one works for 
I most of the time at most colleges and uni- 
L"— versities. But it is subject to continual 
stresses. And it suffers occasional, and sometimes 
spectacular, breakdowns. 

If past experience can be taken as a guide, at this 
very moment: 

► An alunmus is composing a letter threatening to 
strike his alma mater from his will unless the insti- 
tution removes a professor whose views on some 
controversial issue — in economics? in genetics? in 
politics? — the alumnus finds objectionable. 

► The president of a college or university, or one 
of his aides, is composing a letter to an alumnus in 
which he tries to explain why the institution cannot 
remove a professor whose views on some controver- 
sial issue the alumnus finds objectionable. 

► A group of liberal legislators, aroused by reports 
from the campus of their state university that a 
professor of economics is preaching fiscal conserva- 
tism, is debating whether it should knock some 
sense into the university by cutting its appropria- 
tion for next year. 

► A group of conservative legislators is aroused by 
reports that another professor of economics is 
preaching fiscal hberaUsm. This group, too, is con- 
sidering an appropriation cut. 

► The president of a college, faced with a budget- 
ary crisis in his biology department, is pondering 
whether or not he should have a heart-to-heart chat 
with a teacher whose views on fallout, set forth in a 
letter to the local newspaper, appear to be scaring 
away the potential donor of at least one million 

► The chairman of an academic department, still 
smarting from the criticism that two colleagues lev- 
eled at the learned paper he delivered at the de- 
partmental seminar last week, is making up the new 
class schedules and wondering why the two up- 
starts wouldn't be just the right persons for those 
7 a.m. classes which increased enrollments will ne- 
cessitate next year. 

► The educational board of a reHgious denomina- 
tion is wondering why it should continue to permit 
the employment, at one of the colleges under its 



control, of a teacher of religion who is openly ques- 
tioning a doctrinal pronouncement made recently 
by the denomination's leadership. 
► The managers of an industrial complex, worried 
by university research that reportedly is linking 
their product with a major health problem, are won- 
dering how much it might cost to sponsor university 
research to show that their product is not the cause 
of a major health problem. 

Pressures, inducements, threats: scores of exam- 
ples, most of them never pubHcized, could be cited 
each year by our colleges and universities. 

In addition there is philosophical opposition to 
the present concept of academic freedom by a few 
who sincerely believe it is wrong. ("In the last 
analysis," one such critic, William F. Buckley, Jr., 
once wrote, "academic freedom must mean the 
freedom of men and women to supervise the educa- 
tional activities and aims of the schools they oversee 
and support.") And, considerably less important 
and more frequent, there is opposition by emotion- 
ahsts and crackpots. 

Since criticism and coercion do exist, and since 
academic freedom has virtually no basis in law, how 
can the college teacher enforce his claim to it? 

In the face of pressures, 
how the professor stays free 

IN THE mid-lSOO's, many professors lost their jobs 
over their views on slavery and secession. In the 
1870's and '80's, many were dismissed for their 
views on evolution. Near the turn of the century, a 
number lost their jobs for speaking out on the issue 
of Free Silver. 

The trend alarmed many college teachers. Until 
late in the last centiu-y, most teachers on this side 
of the Atlantic had been mere purveyors of the 
knowledge that others had accumulated and written 
down. But, beginning around 1870, many began to 
perform a dual function: not only did they teach, but 
they themselves began to investigate the world 
about them. 

Assumption of the latter role, previously per- 
formed almost exclusively in European universi- 
ties, brought a new vitality to our campuses. It also 
brought perils that were previously unknown. As 
long as they had dealt only in ideas that were clas- 
sical, generally accepted, and therefore safe, teach- 
ers and the institutions of higher learning did Uttle 
that might offend their governing boards, their 
alumni, the parents of their students, the pubKc, 
and the state. But when they began to act as in- 
vestigators in new areas of knowledge, they found 
themselves affecting the status quo and the inter- 
ests of those who enjoyed and supported it. 

And, as in the secession, evolution, and silver con- 
troversies, retahation was sometimes swift. 

In 1915, spurred by their growing concern over 
such infringements of their freedom, a group of 
teachers formed the American Association of Uni- 
versity Professors. It now has 52,000 members, in 
the United States and Canada. For nearly half a 
century an AAUP committee, designated as "Com- 
mittee A," has been academic freedom's most active 
— and most effective — defender. 

THE AAUP's defense of academic freedom is 
based on a set of principles that its members 
have developed and refined throughout the or- 
ganization's history. Its current statement of these 
principles, composed in collaboration with the As- 
sociation of American Colleges, says in part: 
"Institutions of higher education are conducted 

for the common good and not to further the interest 
of either the individual teacher or the institution as 
a whole. The common good depends upon the free 
search for truth and its free exposition." 

The statement spells out both the teacher's rights 
and his duties: 

"The teacher is entitled to full freedom in re- 
search and in the publication of the results, subject 
to the adequate performance of his other academic 
duties . . . 

"The teacher is entitled to freedom in the class- 
room in discussing his subject, but he should be 
careful not to introduce . . . controversial matter 
which has no relation to his subject . . . 

"The college or university teacher is a citizen, a 
member of a learned profession, and an officer of an 
educational institution. When he speaks or writes as 
a citizen, he should be free from institutional censor- 
ship or discipline, but his special position in the 
community imposes special obhgations. As a man of 
learning and an educational officer, he should re- 
member that the public may judge his profession 
and his institution by his utterances. Hence he 
should at aU times be accurate, should exercise ap- 
propriate restraint, should show respect for the 
opinions of others, and should make every effort to 
indicate that he is not an institutional spokesman. 

How CAN such claims to academic freedom be 
enforced? How can a teacher be protected 
against retahation if the truth, as he finds it 
and teaches it, is unpalatable to those who employ 
him ? 

The American Association of University Profes- 


sors and the Association of American Colleges have 
formulated this answer: permanent job security, or 
tenure. After a probationary period of not more than 
seven years, agree the AAUP and the AAC, the 
teacher's services should be terminated "only for 
adequate cause." 

If a teacher were dismissed or forced to resign 
simply because his teaching or research offended 
someone, the cause, in AAUP and AAC terms, 
clearly would not be adequate. 

The teacher's recourse? He may appeal to the 
AAUP, which first tries to mediate the dispute with- 
out publicity. Failing such settlement, the AAUP 
conducts a full investigation, resulting in a full re- 
port to Committee A. If a violation of academic 
freedom and tenure is found to have occurred, the 
committee publishes its findings in the association's 
Bulletin, takes the case to the AAUP membership, 
and often asks that the offending college or univer- 
sity administration be censured. 

So effective is an AAUP vote of censure that most 
coUege administrators will go to great lengths to 
avoid it. Although the AAUP does not engage in 
boycotts, many of its members, as well as others in 
the academic profession, will not accept jobs in cen- 
sured institutions. Donors of funds, including many 
philanthropic foundations, undoubtedly are infiu- 
enced; so are many parents, students, alumni, and 
present faculty members. Other organizations, such 
as the American Association of University Women, 
will not recognize a college on the AAUP's censure 

As the present academic year began, eleven insti- 
tutions were on the AAUP's list of censured admin- 
istrations. Charges of infringements of academic 
freedom or tenure were being investigated on four- 
teen other campuses. In the past three years, seven 
institutions, having corrected the situations which 
had led to AAUP action, have been removed from 
the censure category. 

Has the teacher's freedom 
no limitations? 

How SWEEPING is the freedom that the college 
teacher claims? 
Does it, for example, entitle a member of the 
faculty of a church-supported college or university 
openly to question the existence of God? 

Does it, for example, entitle a professor of botany 
to use his classroom for the promulgation of political 

Does it, for example, apply to a Communist? 
There are those who would answer some, or all, 
such questions with an unqualified Yes. They would 


argue that academic freedom is absolute. They 
would say that any restriction, however it may be 
rationalized, effectively negates the entire academic- 
freedom concept. "You are either free or not free," 
says one. "There are no halfway freedoms." 

There are others — the American Association of 
University Professors among them — who say that 
freedom can he Hmited in some instances and, by 
definition, is limited in others, without fatal damage 
being done. 

Restrictions at church-supported 
colleges and universities 

The AAUP-AAC statement of principles of aca- 
demic freedom implicitly allows religious restric- 

"Limitations of academic freedom because of re- 
ligious or other aims of the institution should be 
clearly stated in writing at the time of [the teacher's] 
appointment ..." 

Here is how one church-related university (Prot- 

estant) states such a "limitation" to its faculty 

"Since X University is a Christian institution 
supported by a religious denomination, a member of 
its faculty is expected to be in sympathy with the 
university's primary objective — to educate its stu- 
dents within the framework of a Christian culture. 
The rights and privileges of the instructor should, 
therefore, be exercised with discretion and a sense of 
loyalty to the supporting institution . . . The right of 
dissent is a correlative of the right of assent. Any 
undue restriction upon an instructor in the exercise 
of this function would foster a suspicion of intoler- 
ance, degrade the university, and set the supporting 
denomination in a false light before the world." 

Another church-related institution (Roman Cath- 
ohc) tells its teachers: 

"While Y College is operated under Cathohc aus- 
pices, there is no regulation which requires all mem- 
bers of the faculty to be members of the Catholic 
faith. A faculty member is expected to maintain a 
standard of life and conduct consistent with the phi- 
losophy and objectives of the college. Accordingly, 
the integrity of the college requires that all faculty 
members shall maintain a sympathetic attitude to- 
ward Catholic beliefs and practices, and shall make 
a sincere effort to appreciate these beliefs and prac- 
tices. Members of the faculty who are Catholic are 
expected to set a good example by the regular prac- 
tice of Catholic duties." 

A teacher's "competence" 

By most definitions of academic freedom, a teach- 
er's rights in the classroom apply only to the field in 
which he is professionally an expert, as determined 
by the credentials he possesses. They do not extend 
to subjects that are foreign to his specialty. 

". . . He should be careful," says the American 
Association of University Professors and the Asso- 
ciation of American Colleges, "not to introduce into 
his teaching controversial matter which has no re- 
lation to his subject." 

Hence a professor of botany enjoys an undoubted 
freedom to expound his botanical knowledge, how- 
ever controversial it might be. (He might discover, 
and teach, that some widely consumed cereal grain, 
known for its energy-giving properties, actually is of 
little value to man and animals, thus causing con- 
sternation and angry outcries in Battle Creek. No 
one on the campus is likely to challenge his right to 
do so.) He probably enjoys the right to comment, 
from a botanist's standpoint, upon a conservation 
bill pending in Congress. But the principles of aca- 
demic freedom might not entitle the botanist to take 

a classroom stand on, say, a biU dealing with traflBc 
laws in his state. 

As a private citizen, of course, off the college cam- 
pus, he is as free as any other citizen to speak on 
whatever topic he chooses — and as liable to criti- 
cism of what he says. He has no special privileges i 
when he acts outside his academic role. Indeed, the 
AAUP-AAC statement of principles suggests that 
he take special pains, when he speaks privately, not 
to be identified as a spokesman for his institution. 

HENCE, at least in the view of the most influen- 
tial of teachers' organizations, the freedom of 
the college teacher is less than absolute. But 
the limitations are established for strictly defined 
purposes: (1) to recognize the rehgious auspices of 
many colleges and universities and (2) to lay down 
certain ground rules for scholarly procedure and con- 

In recent decades, a new question has arisen to 
haunt those who would define and protect academic 
freedom: the problem of the Communist. When it 
began to be apparent that the Communist was not 
simply a member of a political party, willing (hke 
other political partisans) to submit to established 
democratic processes, the question of his eligibility 
to the rights of a free college teacher was seriously 

So pressing — and so worrisome to our colleges 
and universities — has this question become that a 
separate section of this report is devoted to it. 

The Communist: 
a special case? 

SHOULD A Communist Party member enjoy the 
privileges of academic freedom? Should he be 
permitted to hold a position on a college or 
aniversity faculty? 

On few questions, however "obvious" the answer 
may be to some persons, can complete agreement 
oe found in a free society. In a group as conditioned 
to controversy and as insistent upon hard proof as 
ire college teachers, a consensus is even more rare. 

It would thus be a miracle if there were agree- 
ment on the rights of a Communist Party member 
to enjoy academic privileges. Indeed, the miracle 
has not yet come to pass. The question is still 
warmly debated on many campuses, even where 
there is not a Communist in sight. The American 
Association of University Professors is stiU in the 
process of defining its stand. 

The difficulty, for some, lies in determining 
whether or not a communist teacher actually propa- 
gates his beliefs among students. The question is 
asked. Should a communist gym instructor, whose 
utterances to his students are confined largely to 
the hup-two-three-four that he chants when he 
leads the caKsthenics drill, be summarily dismissed? 
Should a chemist, who confines his campus activities 
solely to chemistry? Until he overtly preaches com- 
munism, or permits it to taint his research, his 
writings, or his teaching (some say) , the Communist 
should enjoy the same rights as all other faculty 

Others — and they appear to be a growing num- 
ber — have concluded that proof of Communist 
Party membership is in itself sufficient grounds for 
dismissal from a college faculty. 

To support the argument of this group, Professor 
Arthur O. Lovejoy, who in 1913 began the move- 
ment that led to the estabhshment of the AAUP, 
has quoted a statement that he wrote in 1920, long 
before communism on the campus became a lively 

"Society ... is not getting from the scholar the 
particular service which is the principal raison 
d'etre of his calling, unless it gets from him his 
honest report of what he finds, or believes, to be 
true, after careful study of the problems with which 

he deals. Insofar, then, as faculties are made up of 
men whose teachings express, not the results of their 
own research and reflection and that of their fellow- 
speciaUsts, but rather the opinions of other men — 
whether holders of public office or private persons 
from whom endowments are received — just so far 
are colleges and universities perverted from their 
proper function ..." 

(His statement is the more pertinent. Professor 
Lovejoy notes, because it was originally the basis 
of "a criticism of an American college for accepting 
from a 'capitalist' an endowment for a special pro- 
fessorship to be devoted to showing 'the fallacies of 
socialism and kindred theories and practices.' I 
have now added only the words 'holders of public 
office.' ") 

Let us quote Professor Lovejoy at some length, 
as he looks at the communist teacher today: 

"It is a very simple argument; it can best be put, 
in the logician's fashion, in a series of nimabered 

"1. Freedom of inquiry, of opinion, and of teach- 
ing in universities is a prerequisite, if the academic 
scholar is to perform the proper function of his 

"2. The Communist Party in the United States 
is an organization whose aim is to bring about the 
establishment in this country of a poUtical as well 
as an economic system essentially similar to that 
which now exists in the Soviet Union. 

"3. That system does not permit freedom of in- 
quiry, of opinion, and of teaching, either in or 
outside of universities; in it the poHtical govern- 
ment claims and exercises the right to dictate to 
scholars what conclusions they must accept, or at 
least profess to accept, even on questions lying 
within their own specialties — for example, in philos- 
ophy, in history, in aesthetics and literary criticism, 
in economics, in biology. 

"4. A member of the Communist Party is there- 
fore engaged in a movement which has already ex- 
tinguished academic freedom in many countries and 
would — if it were successful here — result in the 
abohtion of such freedom in American universities. 

"5. No one, therefore, who desires to maintain 


academic freedom in America can consistently favor 
that movement, or give indirect assistance to it by 
accepting as fit members of the faculties of uni- 
versities, persons who have voluntarily adhered to 
an organization one of whose aims is to abolish 
academic freedom. 

"Of these five propositions, the first is one of 
principle. For those who do not accept it, the con- 
clusion does not follow. The argument is addressed 
only to those who do accept that premise. The 
second, third, and fourth propositions are state- 
ments of fact. I submit that they cannot be honestly 
gainsaid by any who are acquainted with the 
relevant facts . . . 

"It will perhaps be objected that the exclusion of 
communist teachers would itself be a restriction 
upon freedom of opinion and of teaching — viz., of 
the opinion and teaching that intellectual freedom 
should be abohshed in and outside of universities; 
and that it is self-contradictory to argue for the 
restriction of freedom in the name of freedom. The 
argument has a specious air of logicality, but it is 
in fact an absurdity. The believer in the indis- 
pensability of freedom, whether academic or politi- 

cal, is not thereby committed to the conclusion that 
it is his duty to faciUtate its destruction, by placing ; 
its enemies in strategic positions of power, prestige, 
or influence . . . The conception of freedom is not 
one which implies the legitimacy and inevitabiUty 
of its own suicide. It is, on the contrary, a concep- 
tion which, so to say, defines the limit of its own i 
apphcability; what it impUes is that there is one 
kind of freedom which is inadmissible — the freedom 
to destroy freedom. The defender of liberty of 
thought and speech is not morally bound to enter 
the fight with both hands tied behind his back. And 
those who would deny such freedom to others, if 
they could, have no moral or logical basis for the 
claim to enjoy the freedom which they would deny . . 

"In the professional code of the scholar, the man 
of science, the teacher, the first commandment is: 
Thou shalt not knowingly misrepresent facts, nor 
tell lies to students or to the public. Those who not 
merely sometimes break this commandment, but 
repudiate any obligation to respect it, are obviously 
disqualified for membership in any body of investi- 
gators and teachers which maintains the elementary 
requirements of professional integrity. 

"To say these things is not to say that the eco- 
aomic and even the poHtical doctrines of commu- 
lism should not be presented and freely discussed 
within academic walls. To treat them simply as 
dangerous thought,' with which students should 
lot be permitted to have any contact, would give 
•ise to a plausible suspicion that they are taboo 
oecause they would, if presented, be all too con- 
iTincing; and out of that suspicion young Commu- 
lists are bred. These doctrines, moreover, are his- 
torical facts; for better or worse, they play an 
mmense part in the intellectual and political con- 
troversies of the present age. To deny to students 
neans of learning accurately what they are, and of 
•eaching informed judgments about them, would 
oe to fail in one of the major pedagogic obligations 
of a university — to enable students to understand 
;he world in which they will live, and to take an 
ntelligent part in its affairs . . ." 

IF EVERY COMMUNIST admitted he belonged to the 
party — or if the public, including college teachers 
and administrators, somehow had access to party 
nembership lists — such a poHcy might not be diffi- 
cult to apply. In practice, of course, such is not the 
case. A two-pronged danger may result: (1) we may 
lot "spot" all Communists, and (2) unless we are 
/ery careful, we may do serious injustice to persons 
who are not Communists at all. 

What, for example, constitutes proof of Commu- 
list Party membership? Does refusal to take a 
oyalty oath? ( Many now-Communists, as a matter 
)f principle, have declined to subscribe to "dis- 
criminatory" oaths — oaths required of one group 
in society, e.g., teachers, but not of others.) Does 

invoking the Fifth Amendment? Of some 200 dis- 
missals from college and university faculties in the 
past fifteen years, where communism was an issue, 
according to AAUP records, most were on grounds 
such as these. Only a handful of teachers were in- 
con trover tibly proved, either by their own admission 
or by other hard evidence, to be Communist Party 

Instead of relying on less-than-conclusive evi- 
dence of party membership, say some observers, 
we would be wiser — and the results would be surer — 
if we were to decide each case by determining 
whether the teacher has in fact violated his trust. 
Has he been intellectually dishonest? Has he mis- 
stated facts? Has he published a distorted bibH- 
ography? Has he preached a party hne in his class- 
room? By such a determination we would be able 
to bar the practicing Communist from our campuses, 
along with all others guilty of academic dishonesty 
or charlatanry. 

How can the facts be established? 

As one who holds a position of unusual trust, say 
most educators (including the teachers' own or- 
ganization, the AAUP), the teacher has a special 
obligation: if responsible persons make serious 
charges against his professional integrity or his in- 
tellectual honesty, he should be willing to submit 
to examination by his colleagues. If his answers to 
the charges are unsatisfactory — evasive, or not in 
accord with evidence — formal charges should be 
brought against him and an academic hearing, con- 
ducted according to due process, should be held. 
Thus, say many close observers of the academic 
scene, society can be sure that justice is done — 
both to itself and to the accused. 

Is the college teacher's freedom 
in any real jeopardy? 

How FREE is the college teacher today? What 
are his prospects for tomorrow? Either here 
or on the horizon, are there any serious 
:hreats to his freedom, besides those threats to the 
reedom of us all? 

Any reader of history knows that it is wise to 
idopt the view that freedom is always in jeopardy. 
With such a view, one is likely to maintain safe- 

guards. Without safeguards, freedom is sure to be 
eroded and soon lost. 

So it is with the special freedom of the coUege 
teacher — the freedom of ideas on which our civiHza- 
tion banks so much. 

Periodically, this freedom is buffeted heavily. In 
part of the past decade, the weather was particular- 
ly stormy. CoUege teachers were singled out for 

Are matters of academic freedom eas] 

Try handling some of ttiesi 

You are 

a college president. 

Your college is your Ufa. You have 
thrown every talent you possess into 
its development. No use being mod- 
est about it: your achievements 
have been great. 

The faculty has been strength- 
ened immeasurably. The student 
body has grown not only in size but 
in academic quality and aptitude. 
The campus itself — dormitories, lab- 
oratories, classroom buildings — 
would hardly be recognized by any- 
one who hasn't seen it since before 
you took over. 

Your greatest ambition is yet to 
be realized: the construction of a 
new library. But at last it seems to 
be in sight. Its principal donor, a 
wealthy man whom you have culti- 
vated for years, has only the techni- 
calities — but what important tech- 
nicalities! — to complete: assigning 
to the college a large block of secur- 
ities which, when sold, wiU provide 
the necessary $3,000,000. 

This afternoon, a newspaper re- 
porter stopped you as you crossed 
the campus. "Is it true," he asked, 
"that John X, of your economics 
department, is about to appear on 
coast-to-coast television advocating 
deficit spending as a cornerstone of 
federal fiscal policy? I'd like to do 
an advance story about it, with your 

You were not sidestepping the 
question when you told the reporter 
you did not know. To tell the truth, 
you had never met John X, unless 
it had been for a moment or two of 
small-talk at a faculty tea. On a 
faculty numbering several hundred, 
there are bound to be many whom 
you know so slightly that you might 
not recognize them if they passed 
you on the street. 

Deficit spending! Only last night. 

yoin* wealthy Ubrary-donor held 
forth for two hours at the dinner 
table on the immorality of it. By 
the end of the evening, his words 
were almost choleric. He phoned this 
morning to apologize. "It's the one 
subject I get rabid about," he said. 
"Thank heavens you're not teaching 
that sort of thing on your campus." 

You had your secretary discreetly 
check: John X's telecast is sched- 
uled for next week. It wiU be at 
least two months before you get 
those library funds. There is John 
X's extension number, and there is 
the telephone. And there are your 
lifetime's dreams. 

Should you . . .? 

You are 

a university scientist. 

You are deeply involved in highly 
complex research. Not only the 
equipment you use, but also the 
laboratory assistance you require, 
is expensive. The cost is far more 
than the budget of your university 
department could afford to pay. 

So, like many of your colleagues, 
you depend upon a governmental 
agency for most of your financial 
support. Its research grants and 
contracts make your work possible. 

But now, as a result of your 
studies and experiments, you have 
come to a conclusion that is dia- 
metrically opposite to that which 
forms the official policy of the 
agency that finances you — a policy 
that potentially affects the welfare 
of every citizen. 

You have outlined, and docu- 
mented, your conclusion forcefully, 
in confidential memoranda. Re- 
sponsible ofiicials believe you are 
mistaken; you are certain you are 
not. The disagreement is profound. 
Clearly the government will not 
accept your view. Yet you are con- 

vinced that it is so vital to your 
country's welfare that you should 
not keep it to yourself. 

You are a man of more than one 
heavy responsibility, and you feel 
them keenly. You are, of course, re- 
sponsible to your university. You 
have a responsibility to your col- 
leagues, many of whose work is 
financed similarly to yours. You are, 
naturally, responsible to your coun- 
try. You bear the responsibiUty of a 
teacher, who is expected to hold 
back no knowledge from his stu- 
dents. You have a responsibUity to 
your own career. And you feel a 
responsibUity to the people you see 
on the street, whom you know your 
knowledge affects. 

Loyalties, conscience, Hfetime fi- 
nancial considerations: your di- 
lemma has many horns. 

Should you . . .? 

You are 

a business man. 

You make toothpaste. It is good 
toothpaste. You maintain a research 
department, at considerable ex- 
pense, to keep it that way. 

A disturbing rumor reached you 
this morning. Actually, it's more 
than a rumor; you could class it as 
a well-founded report. The dental 
school of a famous university is 
about to publish the results of a 
study of toothpastes. And, if your 
informant had the facts straight, it 
can do nothing but harm to your 
current selling campaign. 

You know the dean of the dental 
school quite well. Your company, 
as part of its pohcy of supporting 
good works in dental science, has 
been a regular and substantial con- 
tributor to the school's development 

It's not as if you were thinking of 
suppressing anything; your record 

o solve? 

of turning out a good product — the 
best you know — is ample proof of 
that. But if that report were to 
come out now, in the midst of your 
campaign, it could be ruinous. A 
few months from now, and no harm 
would be done. 

Would there be anything wrong 
if you . . .? 

Your daughter 
is at State. 

You're proud of her; first in her 
class at high school; pretty girl; 
popular; extraordinarily sensible, 
in spite of having lots of things to 
turn her head. 

It was hard to send her off to the 
university last fall. She had never 
been away from the family for more 
than a day or two at a time. But 
you had to cut the apron-strings. 
And no experience is a better teacher 
than going away to college. 

You got a letter from her this 
morning. Chatty, breezy, a bit sassy 
in a delightful way. You smiled as 
you read her youthful J£u-gon. She 
delights in using it on you, because 
she remembers how you grimaced 
in mock horror whenever you heard 
it around the house. 

Even so, you turned cold when 
you came to the paragraph about 
the sociology class. The so-called 
scientific survey that the professor 
had made of the sexual behavior of 
teen-agers. This is the sort of thing 
Margie is being taught at State? 
You're no prude, but . . . You know 
a member of the education com- 
mittee of the state legislature. 
Should you . . .? And on the coffee 
table is the letter that came yester- 
day from the fund-raising oflSce at 
State; you were planning to write a 
modest check tonight. To support 
more sociology professors and their 
scientific surveys? Should you . . .? 


special criticism if they did not conform to popular 
patterns of thought. They, and often they alone, 
were required to take oaths of loyalty — as if teach- 
ers, somehow, were uniquely suspect. 

There was widespread misunderstanding of the 
teacher's role, as defined by one university presi- 

"It is inconceivable . . . that there can exist a true 
community of scholars without a diversity of views 
and an atmosphere conducive to their expression 
. . . To have a diversity of views, it is essential that 
we as individuals be willing to extend to our col- 
leagues, to our students, and to members of the com- 
munity the privilege of presenting opinions which 
may, in fact, be in sharp conflict with those which 
we espouse. To have an atmosphere of freedom, it is 
essential that we accord to such diverse views the 
same respect, the same attentive consideration, that 
we grant to those who express opinions with which 
we are in basic agreement." 

THE STORM of the '50's was nationwide. It was 
felt on every campus. Today's storms are 
local; some campuses measure the threat to 
their teachers' freedom at hurricane force, while 
others feel hardly a breeze. 

Hence, the present — relatively calm — is a good 
time for assessing the values of academic freedom, 
and for appreciating them. The future is certain to 
bring more threats, and the understanding that we 
can build today may stand us in good stead, then. 

What is the likely nature of tomorrow's threats? 

"It is my sincere impression that the faculties of 
our universities have never enjoyed a greater lati- 
tude of intellectual freedom than they do today," 
says the president of an institution noted for its 
high standards of scholarship and freedom. "But 
this is a judgment relative only to the past. 

"The search for truth has no ending. The need to 
seek truth for its own sake must constantly be de- 
fended. Again and again we shall have to insist 
upon the right to express unorthodox views reached 
through honest and competent study. 

"Today the physical sciences offer safe ground for 
speculation. We appear to have made our peace 
with biology, even with the rather appalling im- 
plications of modern genetics. 

"Now it is the social sciences that have entered 
the arena. These are young sciences, and they are 
difficult. But the issues involved — the positions 
taken with respect to such matters as economic 
growth, the tax structure, deficit financing, the laws 

affecting labor and management, automation, social 
welfare, or foreign aid— are of enormous conse- 
quence to all the people of this country. If the critics 
of our universities feel strongly on these questions, 
it is because rightly or wrongly they have identi- 
fied particular solutions uniquely with the future 
prosperity of our democracy. All else must then be 

Opposition to such "heresy" — and hence to aca- 
demic freedom — is certain to come. 

IN THE FUTURE, as at present, the concept of aca- 
demic freedom will be far from uncomplicated. 
Applying its principles in specific cases rarely 
will be easy. Almost never will the facts be all white 
or all black; rather, the picture that they form is 
more Hkely to be painted in tones of gray. 

To forget this, in one's haste to judge the right- 
ness or wrongness of a case, will be to expose oneself 

to the danger of acting injudiciously — and of com- 
mitting injustice. 

The subtleties and complexities found in the gray 
areas will be endless. Even the scope of academic 
freedom wiU be involved. Should its privileges, for 
example, apply only to faculty members? Or should 
they extend to students, as well? Should students, 
as well as faculty members, be free to invite con- 
troversial outsiders to the campus to address them? 
And so on and on. 

The educated alumnus and alumna, faced with 
specific issues involving academic freedom, may 
well ponder these and other questions in years to 
come. Legislators, regents, trustees, coUege ad- 
ministrators, students, and faculty members will be 
pondering them, also. They will look to the alumnus 
and alumna for understanding and — if the cause be 
just — for support. Let no reader underestimate the 
difficulty — or the importance — of his role. 

Illustrations by Robert Ross 

"What Right 

The report on this and the preceding 15 pages is the product of a cooperative endeavor in which 

scores of schools, colleges, and universities are taking part. It was prepared under the direction 

LJ j» Q Th i C IWI a M *? " °^ ^^^ gi'oup listed below, who form EDITORIAL PROJECTS for education, a non-profit organization 

ildO I IIIO IVIan . associated with the American Alumni Council. Copyright © 1963 by Editorial Projects for 

Education, Inc. AH rights reserved; no part of this report may be reproduced without express permission of the editors. Printed in U.S.A. 


The University of Notre Dame 


Swarthmore College 



The University of Oklahoma 


Carnegie Institute of Technology 


The University of New Hampshire American Alumni Council 


Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wesleyan University 


Stanford University 


The University of Oregon 


Washington University 


Baylor University 


The Ohio State University 


The Johns Hopkins University 


The University of Pennsylvania 


Dartmouth College 


New York University The University of California 


The University of Arkansas Simmons College 


Sweet Briar College 


Brown University 


Executive Editor 

Annual Meeting of the Agnes Scott Alumnae Association 

April 27, 1963 


9:45-10:45 a.m. 

Class Council Meeting 

(All class presidents, secretaries, and fund agents) 

Alumnae House 

11:00-12:00 noon 

Faculty Lectures for Alumnae 

12:30-2:30 p.m. 

Alumnae Luncheon and Annual Meeting 
Letitia Pate Evans Dining Hall 
"What Do You Want To Ask About The College?" 
Panel moderated by President Alston 

2:30-3:30 p.m. 

Faculty Lectures for Alumnae 

3 : 30-m idn igh t ! 

Class Reunion Functions 

8:00 p.m. 

Blackfriars presents Lope de Vega's 

"The Gardener's Dog" Presser Hall (Friday night also I 

Reunion Classes 



ix Plan 

















Faculty Lectures for Alumnae 

11 :00 a.m. 


What will the two-party South be like? How influen- 
tial will the new political South be in national party 

Mr. William G. Cornelius 

Associate Professor of Political Science 


A demonstrated lecture by members of the College 
Organ Guild Student Group. 
Mr. Raymond 1. Martin 
Associate Professor of Music 


A discussion of Shakespeare's play — see below for 
another interpretation of the tragedy. 

Mr. George P. Hayes 

Professor of English 


A panel discussion by college seniors of the existing 
academic, social and religious moods which they 
encounter, moderated by, 

Miss Eleanor Hutchens '40 

Associate Professor of English 

2:30 p.m. 


The basic elements of design make up the language 
of vision. It is an international language from ancient 
to modern time. 

Miss Marie Huper 
Associate Professor of Art 


A study of Remembrance Of Things Past. 
Miss Chloe Steel 
Associate Professor of French 


The Atlanta Metropolitan Opera season will include 
a performance of this opera. Here is an opportunity 
to learn about Verdi's treatment of the tragedy. 

Mr. Michael McDowell 

Professor of Music 


Your children can understand it- 
Miss Sara Ripy 
Associate Professor of Math 

-can you : 



\ LcrGA. . . . 

Let's All Rejoice in the Coming of Spring! 

Spring is just beginning to stir at m\ present vantage 
point — a mountain ridge, 3100 feet above sea level, in 
the northeast tip of Rabun Countv. Ga. 1 am staring at 
a dogwood tree, not three feet auav. which has oid\ little 
popcorn buds as yet. I left the campus three hours ago. 
where dogwood blossoms are bursting forth almost 

These first signs of spring always make me. and prob- 
ablv you. too, want to burst forth. So. I ran to my 
house in my beloved mountains for twenty-four hours, 
well aware that the Alumnae Office would not disappear 
over the weekend, but that I could face its problems as 
well as its joys on Monday morn, April 1, having re- 
newed myself through being in nature's myriad ways of 
renewing life. 

In my small library here I found my copy of Robert 

\ Frost's A Boy's Will. He autographed this for me at 
Agnes Scott in 1939, and under his name and the date 

i wrote the five places of which he was a part: "Decatur. 
Ga., Amherst, Mass., S. Shaftsbury, Vt.. Franconia. 

' N. H., San Francisco, Calif." 

During his many springs after 1939 he became a part 
of many more places — and. through his poetry of many 
more people. Perhaps those of us who are familiar with 
spring in the South, which creeps easily along, turns 
over and suns itself, sort of ambles to meet us. can never 
fully know what spring means to a New Englander like 
Robert Frost — it is, just suddenly, there. He cherished 
the immediacy of it and wanted us to enjoy each small 
part of it. just for itself. I quote the first and last verses 
of a poem he published in A Boy's Will (p. 21 I which 
he called "A Prayer in Spring" ( it follows, by the way, 
"'To the Thawing Wind" which celebrates the violence of 
nature I : 

Oh, give us pleasure in the flowers today: 
And give us not to think so far away 
As the uncertain harvest; keep us here 
All simply in the springing of the year. 

For this is love and nothing else is love. 
The which it is reserved for God above 
To sanctify to what far ends He will. 
But which it only needs that we fulfill. 

Now, let's see if we can make a quick, if rather wrench- 
ing, transition, from Frost's poetry to another kind of 
celebration of spring by students at Agnes Scott. For 
several years, near the end of the winter (juarter I maybe 
to lessen the winter's doldrums'? I the students have 
held a formal dance known as '"Spring Fling." This was 
first held on campus, but for the last few years it has 
been held at an Atlanta hotel — for some strange reason, 
this is much more glamorous. As part of the promotion 
of Spring Fling this year ( i.e.. buy a ticket, quickly, 
lor )ou and date I. two students read, in Convocation, 
a bit of free \ erse composed by Marilyn Little "65. Diane 
Pulignano '65. and Nancy Yontz '65. I only wish that 
I could make the printed word do what their presenta- 
tion did — anyway, through the words alumnae can 
catch a feeling of the delightful human beings whd are 
Agnes Scott students today: 

Happiness is March 2. 

Happiness is a date. 

Happiness is four dollars and a car. 

Happiness is your roommate's dress. 

Happiness is finding someone you like in the D.O. 

Happiness is late permission. 

Happiness is red. white, and yellow flowers but no 

green flowers. 
Happiness is seeing all the seniors with dates. 
Happiness is seeing yourself with a date. 
Happiness is seeing faculty members' faces when they 

see the Del Vikings. 
Happiness is dancing at the Biltmore instead of in 

Rebekah Reception Room. 
Happiness is a root beer. 
Happiness is being cut in on. 
Happiness is English Leather in the air. 
Happiness is one thing to one person, another thing 

to another person, and Spring Fling to all of us! 

Spring to me as Director of Alumnae Affairs means 
Alumnae Week End. Hope to see many of you then ! 




_ MtM4U §. 


□ Moved — Left no address G Unknown 

□ No such number D Refused 

□ No such street D Unclaimed 

(Street and uumber) -3B 

' (PosUdfflceandMM) 

"POD Form 3579 (State) /le— 26336-7 opo 

Aug. 1U60 

fl' f 

President Alston has just introduced poet Robert Frost who spoke always to literally packed audiences 

in Gaines Chapel. 

H E 

SUMMER 196 3 

I I 


Marcel Proust — 
Beyond Disillusion 

See p. 10 


^^^ijL SUMMER 1963 Vo 

Vol. 41, No. 4 

Ann Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Dorothy Weakley '56, Managing Editor 



(Opposite page) 


4 Miracles "63 
John G. Johnson 

7 Turnabout 

Sarah Frances McDonald 

10 Translation 
Chloe Steel 

13 50th Reunion 

Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

27 Worthy Notes 

Georgia Governor Carl Sanders congratulates two "granddaughters" at the 
74th commencement. Sarah Gumming (left) is the daughter of Shannon Pres- 
ton '30: and Nancy Rose is the daughter of Anne Glaiborne Thompson "38. 
Governor Sanders was speaker at the commencement exercises on June 10. 

Winship Hall is almost read)- for occupancy — the last in a series of photo- 
graphs showing the progress of the new dormitory. 

The Agnes Scott Alumnae Quarterly is published four times a year (November, 
February, April and July) by the Alumnae Association of Agnes Scott College 
at Decatur, Georgia. Yearly subscription, $2.00. Single copy 50 cents. Entered 
as second-class matter at the Post Office of Decatur, Georgia, under Act of 


SUMMER, 1963 

Nestling easily among other 

campus buildings, the new dormitory 

is ready for its first occupants. 

This is the George Winship Hall, named 

in honor of the late chairman of the 

Board of Trustees. 

Editor's Note 

The American Alumni Council is the national organization 
for professional alumni workers, and through its district and 
national conferences we can keep abreast of the best pro- 
grams and procedures in alumni work in the United States 
and Canada. The 1963 Southeastern District meeting was held 
in Atlanta in January, and Agnes Scott was one of the 
co-hosts. Alumni volunteers were invited to attend and par- 
ticipate in these workshop meetings (see p. 7 ff). This article 
is the address given to the conference by Jack Johnson, 
Executive Director of the Council. 

MOST OF US THINK that all the miracles 
recorded in man's history took place be- 
lore Fontius Pilate presided over the most infamous 
trial of all time. This is 1963, after all, and where 
does one find a modem Lazarus, a burning bush, 
a flaming mountain, or a stone rolled from the face 
of a toinb? 

Our problem, my friends, is that we are using 
the wrong eyepieces to search for miracles. If they 
are not 3-D on a wide screen with casts of thou- 
sands, we just don't sense them. But all around us 
there are miracles in many sizes which don't occur 
to us because of our haste and sophistication. 

Another obstacle to miracle recognition is our 
hesitancy to regard highly miracles which are man- 
made. Man-made miracles are all the more mar- 
velous because they are performed by men in times 
and circumstances which tend to make human 
fallibility stand out in bold relief. 

Always, during the past 175 years, the constant 
miracle has been the very existence of this great 
nation of ours. The miracle, it seems to me, is 
distilled in the forces which somehow manage to 
hold the nation together. Almost as tliough they 
are responding to a physical law, the forces which 
are tending always to rend us are overcome, if ever 
so slightly, by the counteracting strengths of the 
greatest nation in the history of the world. 

Our racial and religious differences, beset as 
they are with heartache and trial, will ultimately 
be ovei-powered by love of freedom and growing 


racles y 



regard for the dignity of the individual. Our polit- 
ical and economic differences are counteracted by 
concern for the ideology which at this moment 
seems best suited to free men's minds for pursuit 
and recognition of truth. Our geographic differ- 
ences are overcome by the forces which make the 
parts, inherently weak when standing alone, inter- 
dependent with balanced strength when taken as a 
whole. These positive and precious fibers which 
bind us together seem at times to be drawn pre- 
cariously close to the breaking point. But they have 
prevailed and that fact is miracle enough for the 
people of this nation to cherish, nurture, and 

Within the framework of our nation, there are 
the institutions which give it life — the church, the 
home, the various governments, the educational 
community. It is abundantly clear that these are 
interdependent, each drawing breath from the 
other and perhaps unable to survive if any of the 
others perish. Among tliese institutions, the little 
islands of freedom which are our colleges and 
universities play a fundamental role. Teaching and 
adding to the world's store of knowledge through 
research have provided encouraging evidence that 
our educational system is gradually freeing men's 
minds to inquire more fully into the world, its 
people and its environment. Our freedom is yet 
imperfect but we move tenaciously toward the goal. 
That some men's minds are indeed free is a miracle 
formed partly by our educational endeavor. 


Aiid where else in the world can one find a 
system of private and public assisted institutions 
which, together, are striving mightily to bring the 
nation's youth to its full potential? Nowhere! 
What upstarts we are to reject the old world con- 
cept of an educated elite. 

On the cutting edge of our college and university 
families we find the volunteer alumnus. Too often 
we malign the members who don't voluntarily sup- 
port alma mater, but consider this — several million 
alumni do support their alma mater demonstrably. 
No other culture in the history of the world has 
dared think of such a relationship between insti- 
tutions of higher learning and former students. 
Here is a miracle endowed with great power to 
provide ideas, intei-pretation, students and volun- 
tary gifts to advance these marvelous man-con- 
ceived institutions for service to present and future 

And then, there is the miracle called you, the 
professional alumni worker. Your daily challenges 
may try you. Chances are, at least some of the 
following will greet you every day: Your secretary' 
will be off with a villus. There will be a memo from 
your president expressing displeasure with an in- 
crease in your operating budget. A member of the 
faculty will call to say how unhappy he is about 
the treatment of his article in the recent issue of 
the alumni magazine. An important alumnus will 
have written to say that he's withdrawing support 
because he's offended by some foolish ideas being 

MIRACLE '63 Continued 

proposed by an economics professor. One of your 
club presidents will be raising the very devil be- 
cause the basketball team is losing or his football 
tickets were way down on the 40-yard line. The 
final touch may be a petition presented by your 
staff asking for longer coffee breaks. 

Why, oh why, do you do it? You could earn 
more money on another job. There's most certainly 
a more peaceful profession somewhere. Hardly any 
of you were trained for your job. Who even under- 
stands what your job is? 

A third dimension 

Perhaps you do it because you care. And, hap- 
pily, some other experiences compensate for your 
daily tasks. A knowledgeable alummis will write 
to say he's delighted to learn of the educational 
progress in the sciences. An assistant professor 
from the English department will drop by to com- 
mend you for the improved quality of writing 
in the alumni publication. You'll get a phone call 
telling you that a strong alumnus will accept the 
chairmanship of your capital campaign in Dallas, 
or Cleveland, or Richmond. And your record clerk 
will find three long-lost members of the family. 
The miracle is that no matter how much you err, 
you can't make enough mistakes to drive all your 
friends away. 

Among you, there are those who do more than 
merely keep records. At least some are caught up 
in the excitement of gathering a small history of 
an educated adult who has a unique relationship 
with your institution. For you, no longer is the 
3 X .5 card or the computer tape or punched card 
a flat, two dimensional thing. Rather, it has a third 
dimension: the faint trace of a man. 

In the alumni programs that matter, perception 
has moved your concern beyond name tags, menus, 
head table arrangements, travel plans and mailing 
lists. There has emerged a spirit which will pene- 
trate to the core of the alumni program — the 
meaningful involvement of alumni in the main 
current of the university's objectives. From this 

will grow increased understanding of the institu- 
tion's educational mission. 

Designers of editorial miracles bring forth pub- 
lications which reflect the dignity, restraint, and 
love of people that conveys the essence of alma 
mater and the alumni program. In their hands, 
the written word — keystone of communication with 
scattered alunuii — reaches its fullest potential with 
sensitivity to the reader. 

As directors of annual giving and development 
officers, you are finding ways to provide oppor- 
tunities for sen'ice through considered giving. 
Contrast this with tlie attitude which motivates 
some to "get more from our alumni and friends." 
In the positive atmosphere for giving created by 
so many of you, a gift to the aimual fund becomes 
a heart warming investment rather than a reply 
to a dun; a bequest becomes a thoughtful gift to 
provide educational service rather than a token 
to satisfy the seeker of the gift; a library or edu- 
cational building becomes an uplifting experience 
for the donors rather than just a new thing for the 
university. In such a climate, established by you 
and the allies around you on all sides, total alumni 
support will surely rise from $200 million each 
year to $.500 million by 1970. 

Interacting network 

We have, then, a regenerative interacting net- 
work of miracles. First, and foremost, there is the 
miracle of this nation, with its separate parts mag- 
netically attracted to each other by our democratic 
ideology. There is the miracle of the institutions 
which give substance to the nation, notably for us 
the varied and marvelous educational institutions, 
striving mightily to free men's minds. Miraculously, 
there are the volunteers — several million of them 
— who don't have to, but do. 

And there is die miracle called you. Perhaps 
you've never thought of yourself as a doer of 
miracles. You're one little human being among 
185 million in the United States and among three 
billion in this world of ours. 

There's a miracle here because among those 
myriad numbers, you make a difference. 


The President of the Alumnae Association 
reported to the Board of Trustees on what 
the College does for alumnae — instead of 
vice versa. 

Editor's Note 

Since Sarah Frances McDonald received 
her law degree, with highest honors, in 
1951 she has been one of Decatur, Geor- 
gia's leading attorneys— we hear that male 
attorneys sometimes shudder when they 
know that they must face her in court. She 
has received many honors for participation 
in community affairs. As president of the 
Alumnae Association she is leading the 
way toward better communication within 
the Agnes Scott family. 



THE Executive Board of the 
Agnes Scott Alumnae Associa- 
tion has directed its attention 
to a matter which has been of vital 
concern to the Board and to alumnae 
for some time, that is, the lack of 
communication between alumnae and 
the other groups composing the col- 
lege community. I wish to report to 
you that much progress has been 
made in bridging this gap during the 
year 1962-1963. I will outline briefly 
a few achievements to support this 

A perennial criticism of the col- 
lege by alumnae has been that the 
college has no interest in her alumnae 
except to ask for financial support. 
The following significant innovations 
should do much to answer this com- 
plaint. These are some of the specific 
things the college is doing for alum- 

1. On the day of the Annual Meet- 
ing of the Alumnae Association in 
1962, those attending were offered a 
program of faculty lectures, a choice 
of six in the morning and the same 
number in the afternoon, ranging 
from Existentialism to The Effects of 
Radiation in Genetics. From the en- 
thusiastic response of over 400 alum- 
nae who attended these sessions, it 
was apparent that we received the in- 
tellectual stimulation for which such 
a need had been voiced. Most gener- 
ously the faculty presented another 
similar series of lectures at our recent 
Annual Meeting on April 27, 1963, 
when more than 500 alumnae regis- 
tered for them. The faculty lectures 
were such a resounding success that 
they proved to the administration a 
point which the Alumnae Association 
had presented — that there was a de- 
sire for continuing education and that 

the college had at least some degree 
of obligation to supply it. 

2. In the Fall of 1962. for the first 
time in historv a pilot project in con- 
tinuing education for alumnae and 
their husbands was presented on five 
consecutive Tuesday evenings. A 
choice of two courses was offered. 
"The Nature of the Self'' and "Latin 
America Today." The attendance was 
excellent and the interest so keen that 
plans are to make the program per- 

In addition to the intellectual stimu- 
lation derived by alumnae from the 
faculty lectures and continuing edu- 
cation courses, it is our sincere belief 
that another fine purpose was served 
thereby — to bring alumnae and fac- 
ulty into a closer relationship. 

3. On Founder's Day in February 
alumnae in the Atlanta area were in- 




"m *!*■ ^4-' **i- *i- ^-' ' 



ited to attend chapel where an inter- 
sting and delightful address was 
iven by Dr. Ellen Douglass Leyburn. 
"ollowing this, again our lines of 
oinmunication were enlarged, this 
nie between alumnae and students, 
ive seniors who were doing Inde- 
lendent Study presented a panel dis- 
ussion centered around their own 
ields of work. It was an exciting 
)rivilege to hear and see the product 
)f today's brand of Agnes Scott edu- 
ation. These students were highly 
ntelligent, most charming, and de- 
ightfully articulate. 

In this same area of student, alum- 
lae, faculty contacts, we were pleased 
o be invited to greet the student body 
It Opening Convocation ; to attend as 
i Board a panel discussion in chapel 
Detween faculty and students on the 
ntellectual atmosphere at Agnes 
Scott; and to participate in one of the 
student chapel programs during 
Honor Emphasis Week. 

Alunuiae House 

4. The college answered the call of 
many alumnae clubs over the coun- 
try, and twelve members of the fac- 
ulty and administration traveled to 
various states to bring the alumnae 
addresses and information on Foun- 
Ider's Day, 

.5, The next contribution of the 
college to alumnae work which I will 
mention is in the field of tangibles, 
specifically, financing, I am sure that 
most of you are aware that the Asso- 
ciation is now supported by the col- 
lege because all contributions of 
alumnae are made to the college and 
not to the Association, The operation 
of the Alumnae House is the only ex- 
ception. We still run the house inde- 
pendently. The Self-Study report 
pointed up the fact that this, too. 
should be changed. A proposal is 
being made to the college to take over 
the fiscal operation of the Alumnae 
House through the college Treasurer, 
and the maintenance of the House by 
the college Business Manager, just as 
all other buildings owned by the col- 
lege are maintained. The House is 

operated for the college guests, pri- 
marily parents and friends of stu- 
dents, official college guests, such as 
visiting professors and prospective 
faculty members, plus a few alumnae. 
The college owns the House, built in 
1922, and the Alumnae Association 
owns the furnishings. The Associa- 
tion is currently having the furniture 
appraised so that we may give this, 
plus current funds, to the college to 
become a part of the college's perma- 
nent assets. In our opinion this plan, 
if approved, will make for more sen- 
sible, coordinated operation. 


6. For three years the college has 
supplied funds for publication of the 
alumnae magazine which have been 
adequate to send the magazine to all 
alumnae. The magazine has won na- 
tional awards for excellence: its arti- 
cles provide another kind of intellec- 
tual stimulation for alumnae: and its 
class news notes keep alumnae in 
touch with each other. 

7. We take this opportunity to 
thank the college for the recent news- 
letter mailed to alumnae. We recom- 
mend more frequent publication of 
such newsletters since thev are much 
less expensive to publish than the 
magazine and serve an entirely dif- 
ferent purpose. They keep the alum- 
nae informed as to what is ha]jpening 
at Agnes Scott, and I think you will 
agree that only informed alumnae are 
interested alumnae. 

Volunteer Participation 

Turning now to other activities. I 
want to speak briefly about the South- 
eastern District meeting of the Ameri- 
can Alumni Council which was held 
in Atlanta in January, 1963. Until 
this year these meetings were work- 
shops solely for the professional staffs 
of alumni and alumnae associations. 
This year volunteer alumni and alum- 
nae leaders were invited to attend and 
to participate. Dr. Alston was the 
speaker at the opening general ses- 
sion, and his outstanding address set 
the atmosphere for the entire meeting. 
His discussion of the responsibility of 
leadership in our world today by the 
graduates of our institutions of higher 

education and his description of this 
group as the "Aristocracy of Compe- 
tency" was the keynote spark for all 
subsequent sessions. We, from Agnes 
Scott, were tremendously proud to 
claim him as "ours," 

I learned that this conference is a 
fine arena for the exchange of practi- 
cal ideas for fund raising and annual 
giving; of new ways for alumnae to 
serve their colleges and vice versa; 
for learning better organizational and 
program techniques: for improving 
alumnae magazines and other publi- 
cations, I feel that the college receives 
full value for sending representatives 
to these meetings. The President and 
three other members of the Executive 
Board of the Agnes Scott Alumnae 
Association served on panels during 
the conference. Our able and charm- 
ing Director, Ann Worthy Johnson, 
was hostess of the 1963 conference, 
with W. Roane Beard of Georgia 
Tech, and she sened on a fund- 
raising panel. Dorothy Weakley. As- 
sistant Director, was chairman of a 
pre-conference workshop on alumni 
magazine publishing, and reports were 
that this was a great success, 

Agnes Scott Fund 

The Alumnae Association Self- 
Study, made in conjunction with that 
of the college, is complete, and the 
recommendations are being consid- 
ered by the Executive Board, Those 
which are found desirable will be im- 
plemented where possible. 

The Alumnae Division of the Agnes 
Scott Fund is being handled by a 
Class Agents system. Their letters are 
follow-ups to brochures mailed from 
the Alumnae Office. This year the em- 
phasis has been to secure fmids to 
increase faculty salaries. As of May 1, 
1963, 500 alumnae have made annual 
gifts totaling $9,056.94. This is in ad- 
dition to campaign pledge payments. 

There have been a number of staff 
changes, including a new House Man- 
ager. In comparison with Randolph 
Macon, for example, the office con- 
tinues to be under-staffed. For the fu- 
ture some study should be given to 
this area. Our versatile Director, Ann 
Worthy Johnson, reports that we could 
not operate the alumnae office with- 
out the help of good student aid. 

rah Frances McDonald '36 presiding at annual meeting of Alumnae Association, 


By DR. CHLOE STEEL, associate professor of French 

ONE OF THE MOST significant literary 
productions of the 20th century is the se- 
ries of seven novels which forms one work entitled 
A la Recherche du temps perdu by the French 
author Marcel Proust. The English translator Scott 
Moncrief renders the title Remembrance of Things 
Past. If Proust himself approved tliis English ver- 
sion of his title — as well he may have done in point 
of time — he did so, I am sure, with mingled feel- 
ings. He would have been pleased by the choice of 
a Shakespearean phrase to name his work, for it 
was in the exalted company to which Shakespeare 
belongs that Proust yearned to take his place. At 
the same time he would have been aware of the 
loss of meaning which the transfer from one lan- 
guage to anotlier thus occasioned, and with his keen 
appreciation for the value of names he would have 
regretted tlie limited significance of the Shake- 
spearean phrase when compared to the richness of 
the French expression. While the English title 
rightly emphasizes the importance of memory in 
tlie work, the meaning of the French title, which 
literally translated is In Search of Lost Time, goes, 
as does the work itself, far beyond a session of 
sweet silent thought in which the author summons 
up remembrance of things past. 

The novel of Proust is, as its French title indi- 
cates, the story of a search. The casual reader may 
lose sight of this fact, for the narrator himself 
seems to forget it as he follows his hero through 
scenes of provincial, seashore, and Parisian life, 
lingers long with him in conversation and obser- 
vation in fashionable drawing rooms, stops to dis- 
cuss military campaigns, to expound art criticism, 
to describe hawthorns in bloom, and to point up 
with extraordinary psychological perception his 
fellow man's weaknesses. But the careful reader 
soon realizes that however far afield his meander- 
ings may appear to go, the narrator never loses 
sight of his goal; he is never unconscious of the 

quest on which his protagonist has embarked. 

What is the protagonist seeking? First of all he 
is looking for a subject on which to write, for he 
seems to have known from the beginning that he 
wants to be a writer. As a child he hopes that his 
father, in whose power he has great confidence, 
can arrange it, but even in his more realistic mo- 
ments of childhood and certainly as he grows to 
manhood, he realizes that it is something he will 
liave to do for himself. Occasionally he finds the 
force to follow through an impression or an expe- 
rience, to put it in words; more often he yields 
to his lack of will power and wastes his time, 
accomplishing notliing. His search is also one for 
truth, for reality, for the absolute, for the eternal 
as opposed to the ephemeral. As a child he believes 
that this reality has a concrete form, is something 
exterieur. He thinks that if he can meet a great 
writer, if he can watch a great actress perform, 
he will make long strides in the conquest of truth, 
for he will understand the reality of literary genius, 
he will comprehend the essence of dramatic art. 
He meets the writer, he sees the actress perform, 
and he is disillusioned to find them not at all as 
he had imagined but instead quite like other per- 
sons he has known. And he is no wiser than he was 
before as to what constitutes literary genius and 
dramatic art. His search continues; his ideas 
change. Gradually he realizes that truth is frag- 
mentary, that revelations are partial only; and bit 
by bit he stores in his heart the fragments that are 
revealed to him. At times he has, as one critic puts 
it in Wordsworth's phrase, "intimations of immor- 
tality" when a sensation in the present identical 
with a sensation in the past transports him, as it 
were, out of the bounds of time and space into 
bygone years, which relive momentarily with sin- 
gular vividness for him. These moments, however, 
are rare and with his usual procrastination the 
protagonist does not profit from them. Years pass. 



One illusion after another is surrendered as the 
protagonist fails to find in social life, in love, in 
friendship the truth for which he is searching. 
Finally even literature, his great passion, seems 
meaningless to him when he considers it in its 
realistic form, in those works which try to give a 
photographic representation of this world as we 
know it. This search on which the protagonist is 
embarked is at the same time, of course, a search 
for self, for something which will give meaning to 
his life, for something which will allow him to 
realize his own particular talents. He knows tliat 
he has wasted his time; he understands his faults 
and his own weakness in giving in to them. He 
finds the world empty, his own life pointless. 

A calling 

It is when his despair is blackest that his moment 
of truth comes, for suddenly his quest is ended: 
he finds the subject of the book which he wants to 
write. Experiencing in swift succession a series of 
privileged moments when his past comes alive with 
unusual force, he understands tliat the subject on 

1 which he must write is his own past with all the 
truth which he has discovered consciously and un- 

- consciously. He realizes that his task is not to 

; invent a story but to translate, in terms which all 
can understand, his vision of reality. When this 

i revelation comes, he weighs the task before him, 
understanding that if he is to complete the work 
which the illuminated moments have made pos- 
sible, he will have to sacrifice everything to that end. 
And courageously he sets himself to the task. "All 
my life," he remarks, "could be summed up in the 
expression a Calling," for he has the strong convic- 
tion that he has been called — in the religious sense 
of the word — to create a literary work of art. So 
his life, which until that moment had been lost 
or wasted, finds at last its raison d'etre, its meaning, 
and the protagonist becomes the narrator who 
writes the novel, seeking through the magic of 
language to translate reality as he has seen it. 

But the story cannot be left there, for it is much 
more than a story. Wliile it is a mistake to look 
for the details of the author's biography in Remem- 
brance of Things Past, which is a work of fiction. 

it is impossible not to see in the search upon which 
the protagonist of the novel embarked the essence 
of Marcel Proust's own search. 

His life, like that of the hero of his novel, had 
indeed been wasted. Spoiled by his parents because 
of his physical weakness, pampered by friends 
who found in him a fascinating conversationalist 
and an incomparable mimic, he had frequented 
social gatherings in fashionable drawing rooms and 
restaurants, dispensing flattery and tips with equal 
lavishness. He had dabbled in this and that trying 
unsuccessfully to lead the kind of life his parents 
wanted him to lead. With plenty of money to satisfy 
his whims he had frittered his time away, indulging 
his fancies and his vices. By the time he was 
thirty-seven years old one might have thought his 
life was nearly spent. He had already been in a 
sanatorium for nervous disorders. Illness on occa- 
sion kept him confined for a period of months. In 
fact the protagonist of the novel is only a weak 
replica of the author as far as a wasted life is 

Early literary contributions 

Like the hero of his novel, Proust also had a 
passionate interest in literature. As a youth he had 
formed with his friends a literary magazine. Later 
he had contributed articles to newspapers and re- 
views. In his early twenties he had published a vol- 
ume of short stories and sketches, a deluxe edition 
with illustrations by a popular artist and an intro- 
duction by the leading literaiy figure of the period, 
Anatole France. Later in an effort to do something 
worthwhile he liad translated into French two of 
John Ruskin's works — The Bible of Ajjiiens and 
Sesame and Lilies. While it is easy today to see 
in all that he had produced the prelude to great- 
ness, this fact was by no means evident to his con- 
temporaries. With what he had published Proust 
had succeeded in achieving only amateur standing. 
His reputation, such as it was, was that of a writer 
who lover over-refinement in language. He was 
regarded in literary circles as something of a dilet- 
tante and not taken veiy seriously. 

And like his hero or even more than his hero. 
Marcel Proust needed to find himself, to make use 





of his own particular gifts, to prove his worth. 
His writings tell us, though only indirectly, some- 
thing of the suffering which life liad brought him. 
He must have been deeply hurt by the realization 
that he was different from his younger brother, that 
he could not hope like him to lead a normal life, 
pursue an honorable career. There was anguish for 
him too in his partial Jewish heritage, for it made 
him different from his friends, at least some of 
them, at a time when such a difference was sharply 
pointed up by die famous Dreyfus case. And his 
feelings about this heritage were furtlier com- 
plicated by the fact tliat it was through his mother, 
to whom he had been veiy close, that it came to 
him. There was deep and tormented remorse for 
the heartache he had caused his parents, respected 
bourgeois of high principles, who had had not only 
to surrender dieir ambitions for their son but even 
to leani to live with that son's weakness and vice. 
Yes, Marcel Proust desperately needed to prove 
himself, for at the age of thirty-seven he seemed a 
misfit, one of life's failures. 

Through all his wasted years, however. Marcel 
Proust had cherished a dream. He wanted to create 
a work of art. He longed to take his place among 
the masters, to join the giants of literary tradition 
in the field of the novel — Stendhal, Balzac, and 
Flaubert. Nor did he stop with dreaming; he 
worked constantly toward that end. Notebooks, 
which have been acquired recently by the French 
National Library, attest to the fact that he kept on 
writing, working without finding the subject or the 
plan which would enable him to produce a work 
of value. His standards were high. Like his hero 
he too was seeking the absolute and he was willing 
to spend himself in the pursuit of it. During these 
barren years he continued to study the work of the 
great novelists of the past, for with that humility 
which so becomes genius he believed that they 
could teach him much about his art. 

Like his hero, Proust must have had a moment 
of revelation, for the time came, probably in his 
thirty-eighth year, when he found the subject, or in 

his case, I think, the plan of the work which he 
wanted to write. With the clarity which marked his 
perceptions in general he understood diat to realize 
his dream he would have to summon to his aid 
the very characteristics in which he had been sin- 
gularly lacking — will power and discipline. The 
spirit in which he makes the hero of his novel 
contemplate his task must certainly have been his 
own. In Time Regained the narrator recalls his 
thoughts about the work which he wanted to write: 

How happy would be the man who could write such a 
book, I thought, and what labor he would have before him! 
for that writer [. . .] would have to prepare his book with 
minute care, constantly regrouping his forces as for a mili- 
tary offensive, to endure it like a fatigue, to accept it like 
a rule, to construct it like a church, to follow it like a diet, 
to overcome it like an obstacle, to win it like a friendship, 
to nourish it like a child, to create it like a world. 

Such was the spirit in which Proust entered upon 
his task. And if the man Proust was weak, the 
artist was strong. Giving up everything else, he 
devoted the rest of his life to the creation of his- 
novel, spending all his strength in his effort to 
achieve that standard of perfection which had al- 
ways been his ideal. He did not live to complete 
the work, for the several volumes published after 
his deadi had not been finally revised. Enough liad 
been done, however, to make of his novel a unique 
work of art which recounts with singular force 
and courage the spiritual quest of the author. 

Potential into performance 

Astrologers would undoubtedly say that the stars ^ 
were in strange conjunction on the night of July 
10, 1871, when a first child was born to Dr. and : 
Mrs. Adrien Proust in a suburb of Paris, for no 
one could deny that this child was endowed with 
unusual gifts. But if tlie world has heard the name 
of Marcel Proust, and if the world is richer be- 
cause he lived, it is not merely that he was born 
with extraordinary potential. It is because he had 
the determination and the endurance to translate 
that potential into performance. It is because he 
held on to a dream, pursuing it beyond disillusion, 
plodding on in the face of repeated defeat and 
failure until he finally won through to a triumphant 
victory. Persistence, perseverance — this is what it 
takes to translate dreams into reality whether it be 
in the life of a Marcel Proust or in yours and mine. 




-^- li 





?*-*- \ 

^S^^^;^ ^^'^-'^-^i 

Allie Candler Guy, chairman of the 50th reunion of the class of 1913, plants the two ozoleo bushes given to the college by Grace Anderson Bowers. 

m umm 

By Lily Joiner Williams '13 


Our fiftieth! \ine of the 
thirteen now living came 
back to the College, and three of the 
ex-thirteens joined us. From the time 
of our arrivals on Friday, April 26. 
until the departures on Mondav. the 
29th, there was a round of delightful 
affairs. Each of the girls who live 
near the College entertained: Allie 
Candler Guy with a supper at an At- 
lanta country club: Janie McGaughey 
and '"Pope"' (Emma Pope Moss 
Dieckmann I with suppers in their 
homes: and Grace Anderson Bowers 
(Continued on 14) 



50tti umm 

(Continued from page 13) 

with a tea at her country home. We 
had Sunday dinner at Yohannan's in 
Lenox Square. 

The highlight of the reunion was 
the Alumnae Luncheon on Saturday, 
when special reCognitio^i was given to 
those of 1913.' Aftf.r the cfeticieus 
luncheon, we were called ty rfame to 
the front of the; din;ing hall near ,liie 
speaker's table, where •Sai'ah, Frjipces 
McDonald '36, preiiyent pi the Alum- 
nae Association, gaye li? ^greetings. 
She presented each with a beiautiful 
gold replica of the Agnes Scott seal 
with an engraving of the fiftieth re- 
union on the back. 

Later in the afternoon President 

and Mrs. Alston entertained the class 
with a delightful tea in their home. 
On Sunday we attended services at 
Trinity Presbyterian Church where 
Adele Dieckmann '48, "Pope's" 
daughter, is organist and choir direc- 
tor. In the evening we were in the 
Dieckmann home. Mr. Dieckmann 
and Adele gave us beautiful music 
on the two pianos. 

Grace Anderson Bowers presented 
the College with two large azaleas, 
which were planted by the front steps 
of the Alumnae House. The class 
shared in the planting ceremony. 
Some of us attended the drama pres- 
entation, '"The Gardener's Dog," by 
the Blackfriars on Saturday evening 
and the special lectures for alumnae 
given by faculty members Saturday 
morning and afternoon. 

As we came to this notable fif- 
tieth anniversary occasion, the years 
seemed to drop into the background, 
and we were again in the college halls 
among faculty and friends of our 
days there. Our gratitude continues 
for the influence the College has had 
upon our lives. 

The following members were pres- 
ent: Allie Candler Guy, Margaret 
Roberts Graham, Frances Dukes 
Wynne, Grace Anderson Bowers, 
Emma Pope Moss Dieckmann, Kate 
Clark, Janie McGaughey, Mary Enzor 
Bynum, Elizabeth Joiner Williams, 
Rebie Hanvell Hill, Elizabeth Dun- 
woody Hall, and Ruth Brown Moore. 
Those who could not come were Flor- 
ence Smith Sims, Olivia Bogacki Hill, 
Helen Smith Taylor, and Lavalette 
Sloan Tucker. 

The class of 1913 receive gold medallions in honor of their fifty years as alumnae from Sarah Frances McDonald '36, president of the Alumnae Association. 






See page 4 



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(Opposite page) 

FALL 19 63 Vol. 42, No 


Aim Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Dorothy Weakley '56, Managing Editor 


4 One Continent — Two Worlds 
John Tumblin 

9 The New Winship Hall 

13 Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

23 Worthy Notes 

The cover photograph was made by Dr. John Tumblin. He was born and reari 
in Brazil where his parents were missionaries, and he taught in Brazil befoi 
joining the Agnes Scott faculty in January, 1%1. For Mr. Tumblin this tree 
particularly meaningful, because its silhouette corresponds to the shape 
Brazil — the country in which it grows. 

Frontispiece: Sophomores Susie Gebhardt (left) and Anne Rogers were caug' 
by Ken Patterson's camera as they met to begin another academic year. 

The Agnes Scott Alumnae Quarterly is published four times a year (November, 
February, April and July) by the Alumnae Association of Agnes Scott College 
at Decatur, Georgia. Yearly subscription, $2.00. Single copy 50 cents. Entered 
as second-class matter at the Post Office of Decatur, Georgia, under Act of 


FALL 1963 

A long summer vacation, a 
loaded car. September 16, 
reunion of friends — and 
the camera captures "the 
spontaneous overflow of 
powerful emotion." 


Dr. John Tumblin, Associate Professor of Sociology 
writes about the past and present of South America. 

A Brazilian boy demonstrates his own version of the wheelbarrow — and reflects the tension between the creative spirit and primitive resources 

trw "T" Them a citizen of any of the 
i \/\/ republics to the south of us 
' » visits the United States he is 
jlikely to be questioned frequently con- 
Icerning The South American View- 
point on nearly any issue. It will be 
taken for granted that he speaks Span- 
ish fluently. And men will keep a 
weather eye on him when their wives 
and daughters are nearbv. for everv- 
one "knows" that every Latin is Don 
Juan incarnate. 

Most of us think of South America 
as if it were a single, homogeneous 
unit. Because we note more similari- 
ties between a Brazilian and a Colom- 
bian than we recognize between our- 
selves and either one. we place them 
in a single category and attach the 
obvious label. It is an understandable 
mistake, perhaps, but in making it we 
forget that although there mav be onlv 
one continent, there are at least two 
worlds to the south of us. The boun- 
dary between these worlds is the line 
of demarcation between Brazil and 
the nations which surround it. That 
line divides the continent into ap- 
proximately equal amounts of land 
area, roughly equal numbers of peo- 
ple (seventy millions on each side, 
give or take a few hundred thousand) , 

two languages which are related but 
distinct, and socio-cultural character- 
istics which set Brazil quite apart from 
the remainder of South America. 

There are four major factors which 
contributed to the growth of the two 
traditions in South America. The 
basic factor, of course, was the early 
emergence on the Iberian peninsula 
of two distinct cultures. The second 
was the fact that Spain and Portugal 
operated quite differentlv in their 
colonial endeavors. In the third place, 
relations between colonists and native 
peoples, and later the \egroes who 
were brought as slaves, were quite dif- 
ferent in Brazil from those in Spanish 
America. Finally. Brazil and the 
Spanish-speaking countries emerged 
into nationhood through independ- 
ence movements which were distinct. 

As an aid in getting a perspective 
of the development of these cultures, 
one can conceive of time as a cvlinder 
extending down into the past from a 
platform on which we presently stand. 
Let us then imagine that we can cross- 
section this cvlinder wherever we like 
and examine what occurred in earlv 
culture at four levels of the past: 1100 
B.C.. 1100 A.D.. 1.500 A.D.. and 
1800 A.D. 

1100 B.C.— Primitives All 

In 1100 B.C. Homer was writing 
the Iliad. Egvpt was on the decline. 
Samuel would soon appoint Saul to 
rule over the Israelites, the Assyrian 
kingdom was vigorous, but the Iberian 
Peninsula was sparselv inhabited bv 
roving bands of rather primitive peo- 
ples from whom the jieninsula gets its 
name. It presented a broad, inviting 
gateway between Europe and the 
Mediterranean, however, and soon the 
burgeoning movement in the Medi- 
terranean was to subject it to many 
invasions bv people who wanted to 
grow foodstuffs on its soil, extract 
gold, silver and copper from its mines, 
and sail from its harbors. By the be- 
ginning of the Christian Era. it had 
been possessed, in parts, b . Phoenici- 
ans. Greeks. Cathagenians. Celts, and 
was to continue in Roman hands for 
the balance of seven hundred years. 
Later Goths, then Moors, and with 
the latter many Jews, were to come. 
All of these, as people always do. 

mixed, and married, and left their 
many-charactered genes in a popula- 
tion in which [here was yet to develop 
a consciousness of national identity. 
\^Tiat was the picture in South 
America at 1100 B.C.? Precise evi- 
dence is still scarce, though we will be 
learning much more through archaeo- 
logical explorations now under wav. 
But we can safely say that in South 
America there were cultures at this 
time which were no more primitive 
than some we would have found con- 
currently in Iberia and Northern Eu- 
rope. Man had lived throughout South 
America for a long time; he had 
reached Patagonia as early as eight to 
nine thousand years before Christ. Bv 
1100 B.C. the continent was inhabited 
by hundreds of tribes with mutually 
unintelligible languages. On the West 
Coast corn-growing, pottery and weav- 
ing were being practiced, and a num- 
ber of tribes already were settled 
around permanent villages. 

1100 A.D. — Iberia Divided 

\^Tien we slice our cylinder of time 
two thousand years later at the level 
(if eleven centuries after Christ, we 
see that the Crusaders were concerned 
with capturing Jerusalem. King Har- 
old had recently won the Battle of 
Hastings. France was united under a 
kingdom, and on the Iberian Penin- 
sula little Portugal was emerging as a 
national state under the leadership of 
Aflonso Henriques. King Affonso I 
began to expand what was initially a 
feudal state, and within two hundred 
years more Portugal became a sover- 
eign power, allied with England, and 
living in the midst of a true Renais- 
sance. Its ports had served as way- 
stations for the ships of the Crusaders, 
and it was outstripping England in its 
kno'.vledge of ships and the sea. lender 
the aggressive leadership of Henry the 
Navigator Portugal soon began a dar- 
ing program of research and experi- 
mentation. Two experiments were of 
special significance. The first was a 
foray into overseas mercantilism in 
West Africa, where the government 
accumulated wealth by selling licenses 
to trade in gold, ivory — and. later, 
slaves — to individuals and corpora- 
tions. The second was a program of 
(Continued on next page) 




long-term settlement and agricultural 
exploitation in the Canary and Ma- 
deira Islands. These two techniques 
for exploiting resources overseas, in 
both of which Portugal pioneered, 
were to become bases of the mod- 
ern colonial expansion from Western 

Meanwhile, what was happening in 
Spain in 1100' A.D.? Whereas Portu- 
gal united as a national state soon 
after 1100. Spain continued in a con- 
dition of political turmoil and disunity 
for another two hundred years. In 
fact, not until the middle of the Fif- 
teenth Century when the two great 
states of Aragon and Castile became 
one through the marriage of Isabella 
and Ferdinand was Spain ready for 
consolidation and the beginning of an 
era of progress and expansion. Until 
then there were several Spains — inde- 
pendent and hostile kingdoms. 

In South America at this time there 
was as much diversity as Europe had 
seen two thousand years before. 
Wliereas the Onas and Yahgans ex- 
emplified tribes as primitive as we 
can find in the history of man, on 
the West Coast the great civilizations 
of Tiahuanaco, Nazca, and Chimu 
were paving the way for the highh' 
developed Inca Empire. 

1500 A.D. — Settlement 
vs. Conquest 

As we again slice our pillar of time, 
in this instance at 1500 A.D.. we find 
that Martin Luther was reacting to 
Roman authority, the Ottoman Turks 
had been expelled from Poland, the 
Mongolians were encountering the in- 
fluences of Europe, and in the Ameri- 
cas the Aztecs and the Incas had 
reached the high point of their civi- 
lizations. This was the golden age of 
Portugal, which had a head start, and 
the very beginning of Spain's days 
of glory. 

Portugal's colonial enterprise was 
two-pronged. Under close government 
control, a trading venture was under 
way in the East, off the coasts of India 
and China. As the first Europeans to 
establish direct, large-scale and pro- 
longed contact with the East, they 

The Senate and House buildings in the ultra-modern city of Brasilia. 

had had to pioneer not only in the 
skills of ocean transportation but also 
in such things as techniques of trade, 
political administration, and estab- 
lishing financial underpinnings for 
overseas commerce. Thev built a com- 
mercial empire based on trade in the 
East, and in this was their golden 
hope for the future. The whole enter- 
prise depended, however, on the su- 
premacy of the Portuguese fleet — 
security was theirs only until some 
rival to their sea power should appear. 
Such competition did appear in the 
fleets of the Spanish, later the Dutch, 
and still later the English. Before long 
their Eastern Empire collapsed under 
the pressure of vigorous competition. 
But while their trading venture went 
sour, their settlement program in 
Brazil, initially a clearly subordinate 
enterprise, succeeded beyond their 
wildest expectations and grew steadily 
in importance as time passed. ^\ hat 
began as small-scale settlements to 
trade in brazil-wood with Indians be- 
came large-scale coastal settlements 
where first sugar, then cotton, and 
then coffee were produced for an eager 
world market through a plantation 
system of agriculture. Thus Brazil 
was not actually conquered but was 
gradually settled by the Portuguese. 
Having had their great adventure, 
their now-gone day of glory in the 
Orient, thev expected no glamorous 

and sudden return in riches. The 
Portuguese colonists in Brazil were a 
practical and matter-of-fact people 
who settled down to make a slow but 
steady profit through agriculture. 

For Spain in 1,500 the colonial ad- 
\ enture in South America had quite a 
different character. For them it was- 
to be. indeed, a conquest. For the most! 
part, the succession of conquests were 
organized and financed as profitable 
ventures, and the Crown received one- 
fifth of the gross profits while seldom 
contributing to the original capital 
with which each expedition was 
financed. As entrepreneurs succeeded, 
capital for this purpose increased 
with each successive wave of con- 
quest, which provided a revolving 
fund for subsequent advances. Agents 
of the Spanish Crown were sent along, 
and in each case the land was claimed 
as the property of Spain, based on the 
deed of this section of the New World 
to the King of Spain by the Pope. 

After the work of conquest came 
that of colonization — and many for- 
mer conquerors, their energies ex- 
pended and the excitement of battle 
gone, settled down to make a living 
and populate the land. But the Spanish 
colonists, a minority supplemented by 
new immigrants from the Peninsula, 
generally maintained a separate iden- 
tity, considered themselves a rulinjj 
class, and for a long time identified 


Iiemselves not with the land and the 
eople among whom they lived but 
ith the Europe they had left. The 
panish-Americans regarded them- 
elves as Spanish lords. In contrast, 
le Portuguese colonists in Brazil de- 
eloped steadily a sense of belonging 
Brazil, and without the aloofness 
vhich has produced in most South 
American countries a bi-cultural pat- 
ern. a sense of being one people 

In time the colonies of both nations 
ook on the special characters which 
he present republics of Latin ,A.m- 
rica still retain. The combination of 
he native, the newcomer, and the 
nixed-blood populations they pro- 
luced. pooled their energies and their 
knowledge in solving the problems of 
he local scene. Usually, however, a 
Spanish minority, supplemented by 
new immigrants from the Peninsula, 
maintained a separate identity as a 
ruling class in the Spanish-speaking 

Tlie Century of Independence: 
Evolutionary and Revolutionary 

Let us look at Brazil and Portugal 
dn 1800 A.D. By this time Portugal 
ihad declined to lowly stature in the 
world competition for power and pres- 
tige. It had ser\ed a tenure as a sub- 
ject of Spain from 1580 to 1640. Its 
.government, not having kept abreast 
of world change, was weak and ill- 
organized bv the standards of leading 
European nations of the day. 

Meanwhile Brazil, the colony, had 
grown richer and more important 
than the mother country. In the 
1700's it had become the world cen- 
ter for the mining of diamonds: its 
sugar was in great demand: coffee, 
beginning in 1727. was much sought 
after; still later rubber was to be- 
come a valuable commodity in the 
world market. Its native-bom politi- 
cal leaders were demanding in- 
creasingly a voice in ruling their own 
internal affairs. The colony had 
come of age. 

In 1800 Portugal was one of the 
few outlets to the sea in the portion 
of Europe which was not vet con- 
trolled by Napoleon Bonaparte, and 
he decided to move into it. Just 
ahead of him, in 1808. the entire 

Portuguese court boarded ship and 
moved out to set up the kingdom 
in Brazil. While still officially a 
colony Brazil thus bcame in fact the 
seat of the Portuguese empire. This 
event was to give the colony ex- 
perience in centralized administra- 
tion and a degree of stability which 
later helped to prevent it from 
fragmenting, as did the Spanish 
colonies, when independence came. 
In 1815 Brazil was raised to the 
status of co-kingdom with Portugal. 
When Napoleon was exiled, there 
came a clamor from the Portuguese 
back home for the King to return to 
Portugal and in 1821 King Joao did 
return, leaving his son Pedro in the 
co-kingdom of Brazil. Pedro was 
liberal, sympathetic with Brazil and 
Brazilians, and soon led them in a 
bloodless movement of independence 
which separated them from Portugal 
in 1823. Two years later Portugal 
recognized that independence, and 
Brazil was officially free, without 
long, bloody, hate-building, divisive, 
and expensive wars. There was 
relatively little economic and social 
disturbance either; independence had 
been won in the field of diplomacy 
rather than on the field of battle. 

The Bloody Struggle 

The same administrative machin- 
ery which had been functioning in 
Brazil since 1808 continued after 
1822. Brazilians were not driven to 
create new and untried political sys- 
tems out of the imaginations of 
idealists who had only half-digested 
the principles of the French Revolu- 
tion and the Constitution of the 
United States, as so often happened 
in the rest of South America. For 
many years their government was a 
replica of Portugal's highly cen- 
tralized: archaic, but tried, seasoned, 
matured, and a going concern. 

In contrast to Brazil, no single, 
gradual movement toward peaceful 
independence took place in Spanish- 
speaking South America. Each re- 
gion, having developed something 
of a culture of its own, conducted its 
own campaign, and a great deal of 
blood was spilled. Toward the end 
of the revolutionary period the most 

able of their leaders were strongly 
im]5ressed with recognition that 
theirs was a common effort which 
should be carried on by a common 
strategy. Bolivar and San Martin 
contributed to this, but by the move- 
ment was hopelessly fractured. A 
series of independence movements, 
and a series of qualified successes oc- 
curred, as contrasted with the ex- 
perience of the U.S. and Brazil. In 
this climate began the struggle, which 
has lasted on into the present, to 
establish permanent governments, 
along democratic lines. There have 
been failures along the way. 

Today: Mid-Twentieth Century 

Now. let's take a long leap from 
a brief historical re\ iew to a brief 
glimpse of the situation today. 

How can one characterize the 
peoples of the two traditions at the 
present time? The careful student 
avoids generalizations of this sort. 
Only when he keeps in mind a state- 
ment like Kluckhohn and Murray's 
does he even dare to begin: "Every 
man is in certain respects ( a I like 
all other men. (bl like some other 
men, (c) like no other man." 

We have stressed two lines of in- 
fluence, akin but different, stretching 
down into the past for over two 
thousand years and operating to 
produce what have become two cul- 
ture worlds in South America: the 
Portuguese-speaking one of Brazil 
and the Spanish-speaking one of the 
remainder of South America. Seen 
together, they may appear to be a 
unit as compared with other portions 
of the world. If one looks at them 
closely they wall be seen to be quite 
different from each other. 

To say that there are two worlds 
in South America is an under-state- 
ment still, if one but looks more 
carefully, for there are many worlds 
within the two traditions now. One 
would never try to characterize them 
all in an article of this sort. One 
would hardly try it even for Brazil. 

Brazil is often referred to by its 

citizens as os Brasis — the Brazils. 

There are at least five of them. There 

is the Northeast, the old Brazil of 

(Continued on next page) 




slavery and sugar. Inland it is 
a semi-arid land where periodic 
droughts send thousands starving to 
the coast. On the coast of the North- 
east the fertile and well-watered land 
is owned by a few scores of families, 
rich and conservative, who would 
rather have it lie fallow than to let 
any of it go to others. 1'his is the 
region where a Communist-inspired 
movement, the peasant leagues of 
Francisco Juliao, threatens to rock 
the country with a Castro-like revolt. 
A second world is that of Minas 
Gerais, mining and cattle-growing 
territory and birthplace of the 
vigorous ex-president Juscelino Kubit- 
schek. builder of Brazilian and pres- 
ent federal senator. Minas long has 
been a political balance wheel, and 
during much of Brazil's historv as a 
republic the state has sent a president 
to office on alternate elections, or at 
least has made known its approval 
of the successful candidate. Rio de 
Janeiro is a culture world in itself. 
Formerly the seat of the federal 
government, its citizens are charac- 
terized throughout the country as the 
urbane, quick-witted, sharp-tongued, 
ironical, and sophisticated "cariocas." 

The State of Sao Paulo 

A fourth subculture in Brazil is 
that of the state of Sao Paulo, popu- 
lated by relatively recent immigrants 
and coffee growers, now the in- 
dustrial center of a growing pro- 
ductive complex. Dvnamic. purpose- 
ful, acquisitive and self-assured 
people they are, as indicated by their 
self-characterization, when compared 
with the rest of the states, as "a 
railway engine pulling twenty-one 
empty cars." The state has revolted 
twice against the federal government. 
and still there is occasional talk of 
secession. Finally, to know the worlds 
of the Brazils one would have to 
understand something of the Gauchos 
of Rio Grande do Sul and the 
southernmost state of Brazil. Out- 
doorsmen who have been rapidly 
turning to industry, led by a bright 

group of young politicians who are 
impatient with the democratic process 
and the capitalistic system of eco- 
nomic organization, they have teamed 
up with elements of the political left 
in the Northeast to cause concern 
both to American investors in Brazil 
and to their more conservative fel- 
low countrymen. 

One wonders about the future of 
the whole world and about the place 
therein of the two great worlds in 
the continent to the South of us. 
Those of us who love Brazil not only 
wonder; we worry. Since I have 
spent a good manv years there, I 
would like to conclude this quick, 
birds-eye view with some personal 
impressions of Brazil today. Such 
likable, lovable people they are! 
Thev can be characterized bv pride 
in the national trait of sensibilidade, 
a mixture of sensitivitv and senti- 
mentalism which expects that a man 
choose first with the heart, and onlv 
after that with the head. In Brazil 
codes of friendship and personal de- 
votions are the bases of every sort of 
social intercourse, from relations 
with neighbors to politics and eco- 
nomics. People are either simpatico or 
antipatico, liked or disliked, friends 
or enemies. Bondade, fundamental 
goodness, is the verv best trait that 
one may possess. Problems may be 
postponed with upraised palms, a 
shrug of the shoulders, a sigh, then 
the smiling "leave it as it is, and 
we'll see how it turns out." Like 
Spanish Americans, thev are likely 
to do o que Ihe der na g,ana — 
whatever comes into the head. Act- 
ing on impulse, and in response to 
what one feels in his innermost self, 
is more laudable than evaluations 
and calculations. 

The Five Brazils 

This does not imply that intel- 
ligence and quick wittedness are not 
highly valued among Brazilians, 
however. Conversation still is an art 
to be cultivated, sometimes at the 
price of prosperity. The best inter- 
preters of the art, their wits counter- 
pointing and blending and opposing 
like the strands of a fugue, spend 
multiplied minutes on a single 

sentence, thrusting and toying and 
savoring the variations on every 
word. They are inventive, as the 
painter, Portinari, and the architect, 
Oscar Niemeier, have shown the 

In South America they are known 
for a remarkable ability to make 
jjolitical compromises that repeatedly 
have forestalled revolution. In art 
they have also shown themselves 
able to adapt the distinctive con- 
tributions of others into new creative 
efforts, such as Heitor Villa-Lobos' 
blend of the patterns of Bach, folk 
melodies of the hinterland, and the 
familiar sound of a child humming 
a tune through a tissue-paper covered 
comb into the spine-tingling wordless 
solo of Bachianas Brasileiras. Uni- 
versities and scientific institutions 
dot the heavily populated coastline, 
and efficient public-health services 
are successfully combating yellow 
fever, malaria, and Chagas' disease. 

The Future 

Words alone cannot conjure up 
for you Brazil in the nineteen-sixties, 
but here are a few: shouts of glee' 
and shouts of insult. Blaring music. 
Syncopation. Honest hisses and 
stolen kisses. Green and yellow. Auto 
horns at every corner, and twice' 
more before the next one. Shrieking 
jets by singing ox-wheels. Boys with; 
sugar cane at the station. Vendors' 
cries and hot blue skies. All these i 
evoke Brazil today, but so does gal- 
loping inflation — and birth rate that 
far out-strips sporadic successes in 
providing for some needs. There are 
skyrocketing expectations which will 
go unrealized during the lifetime of 
most of the people. There is sym- 
pathy for Castro and promises of 
revolution. World competition exists 
with materially successful countries, 
once described as having a head 
start, but now increasing the gap at 
such a rate that it long since stopped 
being a race. How would you react 
to the confusing promises of Moscow 
and Washington and Japan? 

What will these people be like 
tomorrow? I wish I knew. Some- 
times I wish there were only one 



Come Inside 


Miss lone Murphy, senior resident, entertains a student in her apartment. 




1I^W-S£^- X-' 



-•*« ,. 'M^ 

The senior resident's suite is decorated with attractive Danish modern furniture. Miss Murphy is Assistant Dean of Students. 



Wash day is not "Blue Monday" in Winship's bright, well-equipped laundry room. 


Stu tie Jits call the new 
and luxurious dormitory 
"the Winship-Hilton.'' 

Maria ne Wurst '63, secretary in the Alumnae 
Office, is also a senior resident in Winship. She 
enjoys preparing Sunday breakfast in Miss 
Murphy's kitchen. 

The cheerful study-smoker on the terrace level mokes studying pleasant. The Van Gogh print is one of many contemporary paintings in the dorm. 

M7-INSHIP HALL continued 

The terrace lounge, complete with fireplace, piano, and conver- 
sation nooks, is decorated in shades of orange, yellow, and 

Facing South Candler Street, the patio provides a delightful area 
for study and recreation. 

J , 


\ LotiA. 

New Relationships are Being Established Among 
Alumnae, Faculty and Students 

Many new doors as well as many old ones opened as 
Agnes Scott began what will be its seventv-fifib anniver- 
sary academic year. The new ones belong to Winship Hall 
(see pages 9-12 ) where 146 upper class students and two 
senior residents are happily settled. (Old doors can some- 
times function surprisingly well. Those alumnae who were 
' "cottage livers" as students will be pleased to know that 
( not Winship Hall but Hardeman Cottage won the annual 
"Dek-It" contest in which the way students decorate their 
own rooms is judged. I There was a brief dedicatory" 
service for Winship Hall on October 26. 

Another kind of door will be opened in the Alumnae 
Quarterly this year. This fall issue is a small one. contain- 
ing as much class news as we could possiblv squeeze into 
these printed pages. H you need a magnifying glass to 
read it, the reason is that we reduced the type size from 
the one we normally use. The winter issue of the maga- 
zine will have no class news section, but will contain many 
articles and will be the Seventy-fifth Anniversary Issue. 
The spring issue will contain the class news section again. 

The major concern of the Alumnae Association for the 
last two years has been opening still another sort of 
door — or perhaps opening windows would be a better 
term. We have wanted a fresh breeze to blow throughout 
the whole area of alumnae relationships: with each other, 
with facultv members, and with students. 

A kind of fringe benefit of the forty-five area cam- 
paigns, which I found as I traveled to many of the meet- 
ings, was that we discovered each other within our own 
communities. Once I sat at a meeting in an alumna's 
home and watched with delight a real sort of rapport 
develop between an alumna who attended Agnes Scott 
when it was Agnes Scott Institute and a graduate of the 
Class of 1956. 

Faculty-alumnae relationships have and are becoming 
closer. There is a standing committee of faculty members 
which works with the Alumnae Association, and indi- 
vidual faculty members share themselves so willingly to 
speak to alumnae groups, to write articles for the Quar- 
terly, and to keep, through many years, friendships estab- 
lished originally with you as students. Nine of them are 

offering three courses this fall in our second Continuing 
Education Program for alumnae and their husbands. 

The untouched area, and possiblv the one in which the 
need is more urgent, has been alumnae-students relation- 
ships. For numberless rears, the Executive Board of the 
Alumnae Association has entertained freshmen, at the end 
of [heir orientation period, with a tea in the Alumnae 
House. We have realized that this has become utterly with- 
out meaning to both new students and alumnae. One of 
the recommendations from students in the College's recent 
"Self-Study" was that the tea be discontinued, and the 
Executive Board heartily endorsed this. 

As I write these words, we are launching something 
new for new students, called "The Alumnae Sponsors Pro- 
gram." We have asked some alumnae in the Greater 
Atlanta area to act as sponsors for freshmen, assigning 
roommates to the alumna. The alumna sponsor is free to 
work with her freshmen as the alumna wishes: she might 
invite them to her home for a meal, she might take them 
to an event in Atlanta. Or she might simply say to them 
(after they get their first six-weeks grades, for example) : 
"I'll come pick you up and take you to my house for a 
cup of coffee, a good talk (or a good cry!), or just to 

1 hasten to sav that the alumnae sponsor idea was not 
an original one of mine. It was borrowed straight from 
Mrs. John Marshall Ribble. executive secretary of the 
Randolph-Macon Woman's College Alumnae Association. 
Anne Ribble has had a similar program in Lynchburg, 
Va., for several years and reports splendid results from it. 

Carrie Scandrett '24. Dean of Students, and her staff 
have been of invaluable service to us as we have "matched'" 
freshmen and their alumnae sponsors. As I assured the 
freshmen, when I talked to them about the program, they 
ivill graduate — we've been doing it for 75 years — and 
here is their opportunity to get to know the kinds of per- 
sons .Agnes Scott alumnae are — persons whom they will 
eventually become. 

sCOTT e, 







The College has planned to observe our Seventy-fifth Anniversary Year from Founder's 
Day, February 22, 1964, through Commencement, June 8, 1964. As a part of the celebra- 
tion, we will bring to the campus outstanding lecturers who will interpret the various areas 
of the liberal arts in the contemporary world. 

February 22 
February 26 

or April 

March 6 

April 1 

April 16 

April 24-25 


(date undetermined) 

May 5-6 
June 7 
June 8 

Convocation, Thanksgiving Service, President Wallace M. Alston 

Dr. Viktor Frankl. Author and Psychiatrist, University of Vienna 
Medical School 

Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director, Space Flight Center 

Budapest String Quartet 

Dr. Margaret Mead, Anthropologist, Columbia University 

Charles P. Taft, Statesman, Lawyer, and Churchman 

Alumnae Week End, Alice Jernigan Dowling (Mrs. Walter C), 
Class of 1930 

Sir Charles P. Snow, Writer, Lecturer, Scientist 

Dr. Mark Van Doren, Writer, Professor Emeritus, 
Columbia University 

Baccalaureate Service, Dr. George M. Docherty, New York Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, Washington, D. C. 

Seventy-fifth Commencement, The Honorable LeRoy Collins, 
Former Governor of Florida; President, National Association 
of Broadcasters 



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President Wallace M. Alston 









4 Victory Crowns Campaign 
Wallace M. Alston 

6 The Early Years 

8 One Great Society 

Ellen Douglass Leybum 

13 Philippine Perspective 
Eve Purdom Ingle 

18 I Chose Politics 

Zena Harris Temkin 

21 "The Road iNot Taken" 
James Ross McCain 

26 Wear Your Education Becomingly 
Jean Bailey Owen 

29 Where There's a Will, There's a Way 
Sarah Fraflces McDonald 

34 Atlanta and Agnes Scott Advance Apace 
Ivan Allen, Jr. 

36 Worthy Notes 

COVER DESIGN: Ferdinand Warren, Chairman, 
Art Department 

Aj\n Worthy Johnsom '38, Editor 
Dorothy Weakley '56, Managing Editor 

CULATION filed in accordance with Act of October 23, 1962; 
Section 4369, Title 39, United States Code. The Agnes Scott 
Alumnae Quarterly is published quarterly by the Agnes Scott 
Alumnae Association and owned by Agnes Scott College, Deca- 
tur, Georgia 30030. Ann Worthy Johnson, editor. Circulation: 
8,000 copies. Member of .\nierican .Mumni Council 

Victory Crowns Campaign 

HIS is tlie moment that I have 

T anticipated for more tlian a 

decade. I am in a position to 
announce officially that Agnes 
Scott has achieved her great 
seventy-fifth anniversary de- 
velopment objective. The success of the recent mail 
appeal and the January campus campaign put die 
capstone on a venture of faith and dedication diat 
began in July, 1953, when our Board of Trustees 
launched us upon an eleven-year effort to add 
$10,500,000 to the capital assets of the College 
by the spring of tliis year, 1964, when Agnes Scott 
celebrates her seventy-fifth birthday. The original 
goal was augmented by several conditional grants 
and by the opportunity to match, dollar for dollar, 
a trust fund. The challenge grants, already claimed 
successfully by Agnes Scott, have amounted to 
more than $2,000,000. In other words, the un- 
paralleled challenge that has faced the College has 
been to come to the period of the observance of 
our seventy-fifth anniversary with cash and pledges 
of more than $12,500,000 for capital purposes, 
realized since the program began in July. 195.3. 

At the Founder's Day Convocation on Saturday. 
February 22, 1964, we had the satisfaction of an- 
nouncing the successful completion of our Seventy- 
fifth Anniversary Development Program. Agnes 
Scott has exceeded her over-all objective of $12.- 
500,000. This accomplishment represents a mag- 
nificent achievement on the part of more than 6,000 
individuals, groups, business firms, and founda- 
tions who have participated generouslv and loyally. 

During his lifetime, poet Robert Frost served as 
honorary chainnan of this campaign. Honorary 
co-chairmen have been Catherine Marshall Le- 
Sourd, Class of 1936, of Chappaqua, New York, 
and John A. Sibley of Atlanta, both Trustees of 
the College. The active chairman of the effort has 
been Hal L. Smith of Atlanta, who is also chairman i 
of the Agnes Scott Board of Tmstees. Assisting; 
these leaders have been the area chairmen, all but I 
one of whom are alumnae, in the forty-five cam- 
paign centers located over the United States - 
wherever groups of Agnes Scott alumnae and I 
friends are to be found. Then, there have been i 
hundreds of workers, primarily alumnae, who ' 
have made the vitally important contacts which ; 
have meant success in this effort. 

We can never adequately thank the thousands of t 
people who have had a part in this great forward I 
step for Agnes Scott. I would like to be able to ' 
express personally the College's appreciation to i 
each one of them. Particularly would I single out i 
our students, faculty, and staff who responded so 
generously in our two campus campaigns — the one ' 
in 1960 and die one just concluded this year. In i 
these two efforts, our small campus community 
contributed or pledged in excess of $200,000 to- 
ward our anniversary goal. This same loyalty and I 
devotion to Agnes Scott has been the rule, not the 
exception, with our people everywhere. 

The major portion of the financial assets re- 
ceived through our Seventy-fifth Anniversary De- 
velopment Campaign has gone into endowment to 
strengthen Agnes Scott's educational program. 



Also, three dormitories (Hopkins, Walters, and Win- 
ship) have been constructed, additional property 
has been purchased, and capital improvements 
have been made in a number of our older build- 
ings. Just now construction has begun on the 
Charles A. Dana Fine Arts Building where our 
departments of art anil of speecli and drama will 
be located. It is expected that this structure will be 
put into full use not later than the fall of 1965. 

Now with substantially increased capital assets, 
the College is in an improved position to meet the 
opportunities of the present and prepare for the 
challenges of tlie future. It is, therefore, with high 
hopes that Agnes Scott enters the last quarter of 
her first century as an educational institution. The 
academic life of the College has never been at a 
higher level than it is at this time. Our faculty is 
exceedingly able, and our students, a carefully 
chosen group, are competent and responsive. 
Tliose of us here at Agnes Scott now are building 
on a strong foundation laid by our predecessors 
and strengthened by those who have participated in 
the recent effort to increase substantially the Col- 
lege's capital assets. We are determined to be 
worthy of the confidence which so many have 
placed in us. It is our firm purpose to enhance the 
excellence which has always characterized the 
College so that Agnes Scott, because of her aca- 
demic stature, because of her Christian commit- 
ment, and because of her concern for young people, 
will continue in the company of the truly great 
colleges of our nation. 



THE HEMSTITCHING CLUB poses prettily In front of Main. 

FIRE BRIGADE appears ready to deal with disaster 


^^^ V^ '^t^m ^^^1 

part of an early May Day. 

FOUNDER'S DAY featured seniors dressed as 
colonial dames and gentlemen. 

VARSITY TEAM WEARS UNIFORMS and monogrammed cardigans. 

Turning' tack the pages . . . 

To So Lewis 


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ART CLUB of 1897 set for an outing in an open wagon. 

One Grea 

For seventy-five years people plus princi 

EDITOR'S NOTE: This article is taken from on address which Miss 
Leyburn made on Founder's Day, 1963, to the campus community 
and members of the four Atlanta area alumnae clubs. Ellen 
Douglass, eminent alumna and beloved professor of English, has 
here caught the essence of Agnes Scott's history. 

IN the letter asking me to make 
this Founder's Day talk, I 
thought I detected something 
of the implication that I was 
asked because my own history- 
goes back so far into the his- 
tory of the College. I have grown used of late to 
having mature colleagues say ""ma'am" to me; and 
I am no longer disconcerted to be asked about the 
origins of Black Cat, which was a fluorishing insti- 
tution when I came and did devastating things to 
ray studies in the fall of my freshman year, or 
what went on in the Mnemosynean and Propelyan 
Literary Societies, which had vanished long before 
my day. I find it, indeed, rather heartwarming to 
be linked with the beginnings of Agnes Scott; and 
since Miss McKinney [now in her ninety-seventh 
year], who was one of my teachers and is now one 
of my dear friends, is a part of those beginnings, 
they do perhaps touch me in a special way. But 
what I want to suggest to you this Founder's Day 
is that they touch us all and are alive in us. 

I have no intention of preaching a sermon this 
morning; but I should like to give you a text from 
St. Paul: "We are every one members one of 
anotiier." Like the church of which he spoke, the 
college is an entity, a living being, a composite 
life containing something of all who have ever been 
associated with it. but greater than the sum of its 
parts, a distinct essence, whose life flows into the 
separate lives which compose it and in turn create 
its life. This constantly renewed being, always 
changing, yet always retaining its identity, is a 
mystery, like the growth of individual personality, 
and just as much a recognizable fact, though our 
relation to it is more inscrutable. We are bound 




produced the character of the College. 

to feel it as a part of all of us who make it up; 
and we are part of it, whether we will or not and 
whether we are worthy or not. We can no more 
escape the heritage of our alma mater tlian we can 
that of our natural mothers, even if we resist it. 
This college family affects all of us, even tlie black 
sheep in it; and we as inevitalily affect it. Not one 
of us can be here without leaving a mark upon the 
common life, even if it is only in the form of wear 
and tear on the physical plant and more grey hairs 

j for tlie faculty. 

A Founder's Day occasion is a birdiday cele- 
bration; and as in our families, we like to think 
on birthdays of the traits which make us love those 
who are near to us, it seems fitting that we should 

I think on Founder's Day of some of the best traits 
which belong to the college because they were 
wrought into its essential being by the founders 
and have continued to characterize it and to belong 
to die corporate life which sustains and nourishes 
us all. 

When I think of that little gathering in Dr. 
Gaines's study where the conception of die college 
was formed, I think first of the quality of vision. 
Let me read to you again the words they set down 
in stating the purpose of the institution they were 

1. A liberal curriculum, fully abreast of the best in- 
stitutions in this country. 

2. The Bible a textbook. 

3. Thoroughly qualified and consecrated teachers. 

4. A high standard of scholarship. 

5. All the influences of the College conducive to the 
formation and development of Christian character. 

6. The glory of God the chief end of all. 

When you consider that those words were written 
at a time when Agnes Scott was a grammar school 

with no endowment, no buildings, and only two 
faculty members, and when there was little formal 
education for women anywhere, they seem to em- 
body an almost incredibly long view, a dream dial 
would have been visionary in the pejorative sense, 
even foolhardy, if it had not been accompanied 
by faith and by indomitable courage. And those 
who have led the college ever since have been both 
a part of the fulfillment of that vision and die seers 
of the future. Indeed, there is something awesome 
to me in the realization that we are part of the 
fulfillment of that early dream. 1 sometimes wonder 
what the little group who sat in Dr. Gaines's study 
would think if they could visit us now: how they 
would marvel at this chapel in which we are gath- 
ered, at the laboratories in tlie science building 
and the telescope in the observatory, at the library 
with its wealth of books, at the luxury of the new 
dormitories and the modernization of Main Build- 
ing, which they all lived to see built through the 
generosity of Colonel Scott and to hear loudly 
acclaimed as the most modem and best equipped 
educational building in the South. Dr. Gaines's 
account reads: "This building was beautiful in 
architecture, was lighted with electricity from its 
own plant, was heated by steam, and had hot and 
cold water and sanitary plumbing." To remember 
that all of these comforts were unique in the neigh- 
borhood — little boys from all over Decatur would 
gather each evening so see the lights come on — 
is to understand their pride in it and their gratitude 
to Colonel Scott for providing it. 

But neither Colonel Scott nor his associates 
thought of the building as central; nor would it 
be our plant which would chiefly interest the 
founders now. I am sure that what would most 




concern them would be the people they would find 
here. \ ou remember that there is nothing in their 
statement about buildings. It is all directed toward 
the development of human beings — toward us, in 
short. It is of us that they were thinking when they 
wrote those words. There is something uncanny 
about the power this gives us that I always find 
almost overwhelming, just as I do reading words 
like Milton's "a good book is the precious life 
blood of a master spirit embalmed and treasured 
up on purpose to a life beyond life," and knowing 
that the life beyond life depends on us as readers 
— or reading Shakespeare's proud proclamations 
that his sonnets will give undying life to his love 
and realizing that I, along with others readers, con- 
trol that immortality. We are the immortality of 
the founders of Agnes Scott in an even more crucial 
way. If they could see us as the people they were 
planning for in their statement, I am sure that 
they would be startled at tlie way we look, with 
legs exposed and hair in strange shapes, and at 
the informality with which we act and speak; but 
I hope that they would not find us as people incon- 
gruous with their dream of us, would find us still 
pursuing the human ends they had in mind and 
dreaming the right dreams for the future. 

But they did more than dream, or we should nol 
be here. They worked with ardor and with un- 
swerving loyalty to bring to birth what they had 
conceived, and what was harder, to keep it alive 
Once born. You remember Dr. McCain's telling you 
last fall how Colonel Scott year after year made 
up out of his own modest fortune the deficit for 
running expenses. Indeed, it was not until Dr. 
McCain himself began to impress the Foundations 
with our academic integrity and to conduct a series 
of campaigns for funds that we paid off our in- 
debtedness and began the endowment which has: 
steadily grown and must continue to grow if wei 
are to survive and to progress into an expanding 
vision. Besides contributing to the support of thci 
institution in which they had faith, the founders^ 
were willing to do the most humjjle services to keep. 
it alive and enable it to justify tlieir faith. The 
elder Mr. Murphey Candler, for instance, who was 
for years the board chairman of buildings and 
grounds, checked all the luggage himself and used 
to say that he knew the girls by their trunks. When 
there were performances of plays in Atlanta, it was 
he who bought tickets for Agnes Scott faculty and 
students and saw that they got to the theatre on the 
train or the little dummy line street car that ran 
through what is now Evans Drive. And this is 
typical of the kind of familiar care and energy^ 
which those early trustees lavished on the institu- 
tion they had brought into being. 

First Faculty 

To tlieir willingness to work for the college they, 
were creating, the founders added the still more 
important qualities of wisdom and good judgment. 
The first object of their attention was bringing to 
the institute the best possible faculty, for on this 
they knew that its value depended. Dr. Gaines, who 
was an uncommonly shrewd judge of people, was 
able to find and to attract to the struggling little 
institute a group of able and devoted teachers. 
Miss Nanette Hopkins, who came as a teacher of 1 
madi, was made principal and was dean for many ' 
years after Agnes Scott became a college, guiding' 
the destinies of hundreds of students with quiet i 
firmness. I should like to read you two paragraphs! 



"roin the faculty resolutions at the time of her 
leath in 1938: 

Farseeing and dedicated, she made unmeasured con- 
tributions to the growth of the college. She was 
closest and most valued fellow worker of the only 
two presidents that the institution has had. Having 
come in 1889 to the newly founded Decatur Female 
Seminary as one of its two teachers, she was in 1897 
made lady principal of the Agnes Scott Institute; in 
1906 she became dean of Agnes Scott College and in 
1927 was elected to membership on its Board of 
Trustees. In her administrative capacity, she was, 
during all these years, a leader of steadfast vision, 
of sound judgment, and of selfless devotion to duty. 
To both Dr. Gaines, the founder and first president 
of Agnes Scott, and to Dr. McCain, his successor, 
she gave counsel and courage when perplexing prob- 
lems — academic, financial, social — beset the rapidly 
growing college. 

Nor did its growth outdistance her own. She had a 
remarkable capacity for adjustment to changing 
times and new conditions. A woman who had taken 
the minute personal supervision of the sheltered lives 
of girls within school walls in 1897 might well have 
found it impossible to adapt herself to the social 
freedom and self-government of students today. 
Keeping an intimate sense of the family, Miss Hopkins 
could yet rejoice that her family had become suffi- 
ciently adult to govern itself. For generation after 
generation of students she blended the past and the 
present, preserving tradition that enriched the life 
on the campus and yet welcoming innovation that 
stimulated it. And so the college at every stage of its 
development during the past fifty years has been in- 
separable from this woman who loved it. 

In 1891, Miss Hopkins was joined by Miss 
^cKinney, who taught English for forty-six years, 
naking us feel not only her dedication as a teacher 
)ut her warmth as a friend, chiding us when she 
"elt we needed it in the caustic way which is the 
•ough side of her lively temperament, but giving 
)nly the kind of wounds which we recognized as 
he faithful wounds of a friend. I never saw the 
)thers who came with Miss McKinney in 1891, 
)ut I have a vivid sense of them from her: Miss 
ilcGee, who taught science and was famous for 
ler forthrightness, and Miss Massey, the history 
eacher and the beauty of the faculty, whose win- 
omeness left a gracious impression long after 
llness made her retire. She was succeeded by one 
)f the most colorful of the early teachers, Miss 

Cady, who was also gone before my day, but who 
seems very real to me. Her individuality was shown 
in her animated lectures on history as well as in 
her striking appearance, her huge frame always 
encased in a straight serge suit, sturdy brogans on 
her large feet, and a cloche hat with an incongruous 
red rose bobbing over her nose as she spoke with 
more and more vigor or shook with one of her deep 
laughs. I have never heart! her mentioned without 
some smiling reference to her appearance and then 
a glowing account of her power as a teacher. There 
is always a suggestion of Dr. Joluison in the im- 
pression I get of her strange appearance which 
somehow accentuated her wit and her intellectual 

Real Personalities 

And I like to think that there is some idiosyn- 
crasy to give flavor to this character of a college 
which was formed in those early days. It gives me 
pleasure to reflect that it was one of die most indi- 
vidual teachers of my own day who declared, witli 
a beguiling lack of awareness of how much she 
delighted us by her own oddities, "Of course, there 
are no freaks on the Agnes Scott faculty." I always 
remember her remark when I see students smiling 
indulgently at some unrecognized foible of my own. 
These early teachers were all real personalities; 
and they were as ardently committed to Agnes Scott 
and its future as were the founders. The stand they 
made for academic excellence in the days when 
standards in the region as a whole were vague, 
their creating a sound curriculum and steadily 
adding grades at the top and eliminating them at 
the bottom, shows not only their intellectual con- 
cern, but their moral courage. And Miss McKinney 
says that in spite of the financial plight of the insti- 
tute and the need of students, there was never an 
occasion when Dr. Gaines did not uphold the fac- 
ulty in the struggle for excellence. There is a refer- 
ence to his passionate integrity in the faculty reso- 
lutions at the time of his death in 1923: 

It was his faith in God that enabled him to hold 
steadfastly to the admission standard as stated in the 
catalogue, year after year in those trying days of a 
decade and more ago when the very life of colleges 
appeared to depend on their ability to attract large 





numbers of students. Knowing full well that adher- 
ence to the standard of admission would probably 
mean a deficit to be reported to the Board of Trus- 
tees at the end of the year, he yet never let himself 
be turned a hair's breadth from his purpose to main- 
tain an honest standard, despite the mental worry 
that would inevitably result from his action, and the 
ease with which he might have doubled the student 
body by making concessions which most institutions 
similarly situated were making freely. No one who 
did not live through those years with him can fully 
appreciate the greatness and steadfastness of the 
man in these trj'ing years. 

Such integrity required self sacrifice; and this 
was a quality which the faculty shared with the 
founders. I did not know when I was a student 
in die late twenties what low salaries die faculty 
received; but I was acutely aware when I came 
back to teach of their real heroism. There was none 
on my part. I assure you, for I had quite literally 
nowhere else to go. I hope you will not mind if 
I speak about myself on this intimate occasion, 
for I diink diat my experience reveals somediing 
of the spirit of the college. I finished graduate 
school in 1934, when the depression had reached 
its very bottom and new openings for teachers were 
non-existent. The only offers of jobs I had were 
at a boarding school in New England, where one 
of the cliief duties of die English mistress seemed 
to be to censor the letters which the students were 
required to write home each week and at a so- 
called college for whose work I had no respect. 
So I came and simply asked Dr. McCain to let me 
teach at Agnes Scott. It was a case of Frost's defi- 
nition of home as a place where when you have 
to go there, they have to take you in; and it shows 
something about the college that a place was made 
for me in the English department. 

Personal Experience 

What I leanied when I became a part of the 
faculty was that they were all working for reduced 
pay and that they had chosen to accept the reduc- 
tion in salaries on which they were already unable 
to make ends meet rather than lower the standards 

of the college in order to attract more students 
In these days of prosperity, I think it is han 
for you to conceive of the real poverty of thosi 
times and how few families were able to managi 
the total of $700.00 for board and tuition. Indeed 
it is hard for any of us really to sense again wha 
it was like to be anxious for more students whei 
we are in the midst of the pressure for admissioi 
of the long waiting lists which now beset us. Bu 
the action of the faculty in the time of die de 
pression required the kind of integrity and heroi( 
commitment to excellence which is part of ou: 
heritage and of the basic character of the college 

Character of College 

This character has always, I think, attracted stu 
dents of a corresponding calibre who have become 
a part of the whole ethos of the college. Each gen 
eration of students receives much from earlier ones 
and leaves much for those to come. The richness oi 
friendships with fellow students formed during oui 
own generation at the college is for most of us 
simply immeasurable; and many of these friend-' 
ships endure and grow after college and are dis- 
tinguished by the special bond of a common inherit-ij 
ance. As we live and work here together, oum 
associations, our ways of thought and behavior, area 
permanently affected by the essential life of the 
college, of which all the rich variety of our indi- 
vidual temperaments and endowments in turn be- 
comes a part. The college helps create us as wei 
renew its creation. } 

Continuing Growth ! 

The continuance of its life rests with us; and I 
like to think that it is carried on not just here om 
the campus, but in all the places from which the( 
alumnae come to us today and in the far comers 
of the earth, where our graduates are living parts 
of the total life of the college. They have takem 
something of Agnes Scott to every state in the' 
union and to every continent in the world. And 
they pass it on wherever they are, as it will, I feel 


(Continued on page 35) 


W ith the Peace Corps 



OR over a year my husband, 
Clyde, and I have been living 
in the Republic of the Philip- 
pines as members of the United 
States Peace Corps. Clyde has 
been teaching English and so- 
cial studies in a teacher's college, and I have been 
teaching high school mathematics. 

We live in Zamboanga City, one of the loveliest 
cities in tlie Philippines, and we are the envy of 
some of our Peace Corps colleagues wlio are sta- 
tioned in less exotic places. Zamboanga City has 
every feature of a tropical paradise. Sprays of 
bougainvillas and orchids decorate even the most 
modest houses. We enjoy swimming in crystal-clear 
water at beaches which are lined with coconut 
palms. Coral reefs where a variety of shells and 
beautifully colored fish abound are only an hour 
away by native sailboat. The sunsets over the Sulu 
Sea fill the sky with yellows, oranges, purples, and 
pinks in contrast to the blue-gray islands across the 
straits. Nature is very generous. The market over- 
flows every morning with fish, crabs, clams, shrimp, 
and occasionally, lobsters and sharks. Fruit trees, 
bearing an endless variety of fruits, grow wild. 

(Continued ) 

Eve Purdom Ingle '60 talks with students while other girls 
rehearse for a pageant at the high school. 



Philippine Perspective 


The soil is rich, and beautiful veg( 
tables can be grown with very littl 

Coming from a temperate to 
tropical climate demands many phys: 
cal adjustments. We have learne 
the necessity of preventive warfai 
against mold, termites, and dysenter) 
We have learned to slow down whei 
we walk and to take a siesta ever 
day after lunch. In our eyes, ou 
cold shower is the height of luxury 
We have even developed an apprecia 
tion for the durian, the fruit tha 
smells like sulfur dioxide. 

Psychological Adjustments 

The physical adjustments are eas\ 
to cope with because they can bf 
dealt with in physical terms. Bu 
the psychological adjustments re 
quired for living in a new culture 
are hard to make. After four years 
conditioning to being regarded witl 
indifference as a representative of the 
female of the species by Georgia Tech 
males, it was confusing when sud 
denly I was considered a living, 
breathing Marilyn Monroe to the man 
on the street in the Philippines. And 
the Filipino makes no secret of his 
appreciation of blond hair and white 
skin. In the stores and public market, 
it is necessary to bargain for all 
items, and we are never quite sure 
whether we are getting the Filipino 
price or the American price. We 
have a limited knowledge of the dia- 
lect spoken here, and so we cannot 
always be certain whether the re- 
marks made about us are friendly or 
insulting. Since we do not know 
exactly where we stand in any of 
these situations, more than once we 
have become rather paranoid in 
thinking we are being ridiculed or 

Agnes Scott, more than most insti-i 
tutions of higher learning, attempts 
to instill in its students certain ideals. 

Neighborhood children gather to talk in front of 
Eve and Clyde's house. 



Jpon graduation from Agnes Scott, 

had incorporated these principles — 
he belief in striving for excellence, 

concern for other people, the need 
or communication between human 
)eings — into my set of values. With 
he naivete of youth, I believed that 

was capable of achieving such 
deals. Two years of living and teach- 
ng in small communities in the south- 
m part of the United States pro- 
dded no experiences that shook my 
aith in my ability to attain these 
deals. Living in a different culture, 
lowever. has made me realize how 
ar I fall short of this goal. 

Soon after our arrival, I discovered 
hat 1 did not love humanity, not 
even the more lovable portion of 
lumanity — children. I feel no love 
or children who mimic my Ameri- 
:an accent to my face or who climb 
ip in our orange tree to pick unripe 
iranges as soon as we turn our 
)acks. There is no common bond of 
mmanity, as far as I am concerned, 
jetween me and the teen-age boys 
vho make abusive remarks about me. 
[ find no bond of communication be- 
ween myself and the mother who 
ihows great affection for her child 
ly the loving expression on her face, 
out is not at all concerned about the 
unning sores all over the child's legs. 

Convictions in Practice 

Confronting people and situations 
iuch as these has made me realize 
hat the noble convictions I held are 
remendously difficult to put into 
Dractice. As a result, both Clyde and 
, have become much more realistic 
ibout what can actually be accom- 
Dlished in the field of human rela- 
ionships, and thus we are more ap- 
preciative of the small bits of prog- 
ress between human beings that we 
see around us in the world today. 

One of our goals in coming to the 
Philippines was to make some lasting 
•riendships with Filipinos. We have 
found that friendship across cultures 
is just as difficult to realize as the 
deals fostered at Agnes Scott. Our 
failure in this area does not stem 
From lack of friendliness on the part 
)f Filipinos. We have met almost no 
lostility. Filipinos are unusually 

friendly toward Americans because 
of the wise administration of the 
Philippines when it was our posses- 
sion and the partnership in fighting 
during World War II. Certainly 
Clyde and I are on friendly terms 
with many people, but we have not 
been able to develop the type of 
friendship we did in the United 
States. Friendships such as those 
formed at Agnes Scott out of the 
sharing of romantic crises, heated dis- 
cussions about religion, and frantic 
study for exams continue long after 
graduation. In the Philippines we 
have not been able to find common 
experiences that both we and our ac- 
quaintances enjoy. Filipinos do not 
like swimming or sailing, our favorite 
recreational activities. With the Fili- 
pino emphasis on smooth interper- 
sonal relationships, a Filipino is un- 
comfortable in a discussion where 
ideas are tossed back and forth; even 
a teacher is apt to take personally 
an attack upon his ideas. Because 
Filipinos and Americans are sensitive 
to different things, we have inad- 
vertently cut short budding friend- 
ships, and we have been offended by 
situations which we now understand 
were not intended to be insulting. It 
is only now. after more than a year 
here, that we are beginning to find 
friends with whom we can really 
communicate. These people certainly 
do not share all our views and values, 
but there are areas where our in- 
terests and values overlap so that 
there is some foundation for com- 

Western Influence 

When we arrived here, we were 
struck by how Western the Philip- 
pines appeared. Almost fifty years 
under an American government left 
a strong American imprint. Most peo- 
ple wear Western clothes. Teen-agers 
much prefer the twist to any native 
dances. The national government con- 
sists of a president elected every 
four years, a bicameral legislature, 
and a supreme court. Zamboanga 
City has all the organizations in- 
digenous to American small towns — 
Rotary Club, Jaycees, Red Cross, Boy 
and Girl Scouts. 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: We wanted words 
from a recent graduate to balance wisdom 
from older ones, so asked Eve Purdom 
Ingle '60 to write an article. Eve, an Eng- 
lish major, member of Phi Beta Kappa, 
president of student government, taught 
school in North Carolina, married another 
teacher, Clyde Ingle, in December, 1960, 
and they are now serving as Peace Corps 

After a few months, we began to 
realize that though these American 
and Philippine institutions have the 
same names, they certainly do not 
have the same functions. After being 
asked to be a committee chairman 
for a Christmas program at the high 
school, I was surprised when, a day 
before the scheduled meeting of the 
committee, a teacher asked me, "Have 
you decided yet what the program 
will be?" From her remark and the 
performance of the conmiittee the 
next day. I learned that a committee 
chairman does not lead the group to 
reach a decision, but instead an- 
nounces to the committee what the 
program will consist of and what the 
responsibility of each member will 
be. The decisions of the chairman 
are accepted without question. 
Though this incident is innocuous in 
nature, the concepts of authority and 
group action expressed in it have 
serious implications for a nation 
which is a democracy. 

One of the great values of our 
experience in the Peace Corps has 
come from such incidents which re- 
veal so much about Philippine so- 
cietv. Because those of us who live in 
the southeastern part of the United 
States hold basically the same values, 
we assume that these values are uni- 
versal. Only by living and working 
with people who operate under a 
different system of values have Clyde 
and I come to realize, by contrast, 
what our own American culture really 

I suspect that the values I call 
American are common to all Western 
countries or perhaps all industrialized 
nations, but since I have lived in 
only one Western nation. I will refer 
to them as American values. In like 
manner, I will call the values I find 
here Filipino values, even though 
other Oriental or tropical nations 
mav share such values. 


(Continued on next page) 15 

Philippine Perspective 


Americans, I have learned, have a 
religion of work. Perhaps because 
our forefathers lived so long in an 
agricultural economy whose sole pur- 
pose was to prepare for winter, they 
unconsciously handed down to us the 
feeling that work is necessary. We 
feel slightly uncomfortable if we 
have no work, and so those of the 
leisure class create clubs and com- 
munity activities to give themselves 
a feeling of accomplishment. Be- 
cause of the constant heat and hu- 
midity which drain away body 
energy, work is rather distasteful in 
a tropical country. When it is not 
the rice planting or harvesting sea- 
son, the Filipino farmer is quite con- 
tent to sit under the coconut trees 
and gossip, drink coconut wine, or 
preen his fighting cocks. 

Our view of work is based on the 
premise that work has inherent 
dignity. We feel that the farmer, 
whose work is certainly largely 
manual, is the backbone of American 
life and represents the best and basic 
ideals of America. Filipinos shun any 
kind of work that involves getting 
oneself dirtv. Because of the low 
status associated with farming, a 
college graduate, even one with a de- 
gree in agriculture, would much pre- 
fer a clerical job to farming, in spite 
of the fact that he could earn a great 
deal more money in agriculture. 

Protestant Ethic 

I am only now beginning to under- 
stand what the Protestant ethic is and 
why it is unique. Americans, no mat- 
ter what religion or lack of religion 
they profess, believe fundamentally 
in the relationship between behavior 
and the corresponding reward or 
punishment. Again, climate may be a 
factor. When winter comes, it pre- 
sents an inescapable day of reckon- 
ing for the work performed during 
the growing season. In a tropical 
country there has never been such a 
day of judgment. Nature has always 
provided; there have always been 
plenty of fish in the sea and bananas 
on the trees. 

A basic tenet of the Protestant 
ethic is a strong emphasis on individ- 
ual responsibility. American society 
makes it clear to a young woman 
that she alone is responsible for her 
physical relationships with men. A 
Filipina, on the other hand, never 
has to be concerned about her physi 
cal behavior with men. In her court 
ship, she is constantly chaperoned 
Since the system of chaperonage re 
moves any element of individua 
choice from the situation, the gir 
does not have to assume any Individ 
ual responsibility for her conduct. 

Group Identification 

Our stress on individual responsi- 
bility stems from the fact that we 
think of ourselves as individuals. 
Filipinos identify themselves, not as 
individuals, but as members of a 
group, whether it be the family, class 
in school, or a club. On a picnic with 
a group of college girls who live in 
the same boarding house and are close 
friends. I found the dessert delicious 
and wanted to compliment the cook. 
When I asked who made the dessert, 
one of the girls answered, "All of us, 
ma'am." I persisted in trying to find 
out who the cook was, but I kept get- 
ting the same answer. The girls pre- 
ferred giving the credit to the group 
rather than singling out one individ- 
ual for praise. 

Americans place great value on 
discipline. Though it did not im- 
press me as significant at the time, I 
recall now that in teaching in ele- 
mentary school in the United States, 
all of the teachers placed a great deal 
of emphasis on the children's ability 
to form a line in going to and from 
all activities. In the post office in 
Zamboanga City whoever can gently 
but firmly push his way to the front 
of the cluster of people grouped 
around the stamp window is the one 
who will buy stamps next. 

The American emphasis on dis- 
cipline is most clearly seen in the 
way we raise our children. In the 
Philippines mothers are generally 
very affectionate and permissive with 
their children. As a rule, babies are 
breast fed on a demand schedule. I 

seldom hear young children crying, 
for the mother, an older brother oi 
sister, or a servant immediately picks 
up and holds the child when he be 
gins to whimper. Toilet training be- 
gins at the age of five. 

Few Guilt Feelings 

Because much is demanded of 
American children at an early age 
our society produces adults who tend 
to hold deep guilt feelings because 
of an inability to live up to the norms 
society has set for them. Tran- 
quilizers, alcoholism, and psychia- 
trists do not play a minor role in 
American life today. Little, however, 
is expected of Filipino children, and 
as adults they have few guilt feelings. 
People on the streets and students in 
the classroom display almost none of 
the nervous habits that indicate feel- 
ings of tension. Mental illness and 
suicide are rare. 

In addition to deepening our 
knowledge of our own American 
values, living here has given us an 
appreciation of the values of Philip- 
pine culture. Though our ideas 
about life are too firmly fixed to be 
drastically changed at this point, we 
hope that some Filipino ways of 
thinking will rub off on us. 

Personal Touch 

Coming from a technological so- 
ciety where an abundance of ma- 
chines has made some areas of life 
rather impersonal, we find great 
pleasure in the personal touch that 
pervades Filipino life. Transportation 
by jeepney offers a striking contrast 
to a city bus ride in the United 
States, in terms of people. The jeep- 
ney driver will stop his gaily colored, 
eight-passenger vehicle any place on 
his route where I hail him. The seat- 
ing arrangement, with six j>assengers 
facing each other on parallel benches 
in the rear of the jeep, is very con- 
ducive to conversation, whether it be 
neighborly gossip or national politics. 
In the crowded jeepney, with live 
chickens and market baskets full of 
food at our feet and several children 
standing in any remaining empty 
spaces, suddenly perfect strangers are 



not really such strangers after all, 
and many people we have never seen 
before strike up conversations with 
us. Added personal services are the 
driver's willingness to stop the jeep 
and wait while I go to buy ice and 
his co-operation in delivering letters 
to people who live along his route. 

We appreciate the Filipino's ten- 
dency to make relationships between 
himself and other people. When I 
walk through the fish market, the 
fish vendors point to their wares and 
call to me, "You like to buy fish. 
Nene?" Nene is an affectionate term 
meaning "little sister," and these men 
have made me their little sister, 
rather than placing me in the cate- 
gory of a consumer or an American 
who will gladly pay outrageous 

Enjoyment of Life 

A second aspiect of life here that 
we find refreshing is the sheer enjoy- 
ment of life itself. As Americans 
accustomed to running from one ex- 
tremely important task to another 
equally significant mission, we take 
delight in die attitude that there is 
plenty of time to sit down, relax, 
and chat with one another. The no- 
tions that we as insignificant humans 
cannot accomplish great deeds on 
earth, that a tally sheet of our daily 
works is not being kept in some cor- 
ner of the universe, that perhaps one 
of the purposes of the gift of life is 
our own enjoyment of the living of 
it — these ideas are very apptealing to 

Our contribution to the Philippine 
educational system has been very 
small. For Clyde and me, the real value 
of our living here has been what we 
have learned not only about the 
Philippines, but also about ourselves. 
For living in a society that is new 
to us has revealed problems that we 
never dreamed existed before and has 
made us experience the depths of 
loneliness and the height of joy that 
somehow combine to give this life so 
much meaning. 

Children of Peace Corps Representatives in the 
Philippines attend the Ayolo primary school. 






|N May of 195a Chester 
Bowles came to Tor- 
rington on a swing 
around Connecticut in 
quest of delegates 
•favorable to his candidacy for the 
nomination as United States Senator. 
Although I was not a delegate nor 
even remotely interested in active 
politics, I attended the open meeting 
at a local hotel in order to speak 
with this erudite man whose writings 
and opinions I had found lucid and 

Mr. Bowleg did not succeed in 
capturing the nomination he sought, 
but he did succeed in capturing my 
fervor and energies to the extent that 
the fascinating art of politics, which 
I had hitherto shunned as too "dirty" 
for my delicate intellectual constitu- 
tion, became vital to me. For the 
next five years, politics was the most 
important thing in my life. Its on- 
slaught was insidious and my thrall- 
dom complete. So complete that I 
finally decided to take a sabbatical 
in order to sit quietly, to think, to 
read, to unwind. 

It was an exciting time and it was 
a time, incidentally, when all I had 
gleaned from college courses came 
into maximum use: historical facts, 
basic philosophies, literary allusions, 
creative writing and speech — always 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Born in tondon, 
Zena says she became a Democrat while at 
Agnes Scott where she majored in English 
and speech, met and married a dental 
student— and longed for a career in the 
theater. Her three children have helped 
her make a career in politics; they accom- 
panied her on the hustings of her 1959 suc- 
cessful campaign for election to Connecti- 
cut's House of Representatives. 

speech. One Henry Higgins type said 
he voted for me because I was the 
only candidate he had ever heard 
who pronounced the sibilants prop- 

In November 1958. I won my 
first election and became one of 
Torrington's two State Representa- 
tives to the Connecticut General As- 
sembly. Our legislature meets for 
the first five months of the odd- 
numbered years; the remainder of 
the two-year term is spent meeting 
in committee, making speeches, at- 
tending political functions, and being 
a vessel into which constituents pour 
all their problems, real and imagi- 

A Democratic Sweep 

That first term was wonderful! I 
had been elected on a wave of Demo- 
cratic support which swept to victory 
all our candidates for state office and, 
for the first time in 82 years, gave 
control of both legislative houses to 
the Democratic Party. Our majority 
in the House was three votes. Dur- 
ing the session, when one of our 
members died and was replaced by 
a Republican, that majority was re- 
duced to one vote. 

The Democratic platform for 
years had advocated wholesale re- 
forms: abolition of county govern- 
ment, professional municipal courts, 
reorganization of the executive 
branch, sweeping changes in welfare, 
mental health and labor programs. 
We had promised to do all kinds of 
things when and if we could. Well 
now. to our shock, we could. And we 
did. Despite the anguish caused in 
many Democratic circles by the loss 

of patronage resulting from reforms, 
the platform promises were kept. 

It was not easy. Day after day we 
sat in the Victorian monstrosity 
which is the Connecticut Capitol de- 
bating, arguing, disputing and voting, 
always voting, As winter faded and 
spring arrived, and oh! it was a very 
warm spring, the atmosphere in the 
high-ceilinged House chamber be- 
came nigh to impossible — hot, airless 
and charged with cigar and cigarette 
smoke. But. we stayed in session until 
all hours — disheveled, hungry, and 
distraught. We had to stay because 
our majority was so slim. To reduce 
truancy, food was brought in to us, 
and John Bailey, our state Demo- 
cratic chairrrian, prowled the cor- 
ridors and lounges rousing weary \ 
legislators and urging them back into 
the House, which was rapidly be- 
coming a chamber of near-horror. 

The worst for me was the day I all 
but collapsed from dehydration and 
had to be half-carried from my desk 
into the office of the Secretary of the 
State to recover. All the business of 
Connecticut was delayed while a dep- 
uty attorney-general dashed to a drug 
store to buv me some salt tablets! 

After the Session 

When t.'ie session ended in June 
in a chaotic blaze of glory and ac- 
complishment, we all went home to 
recuperate and to bask in our own 
importance as members of the his- 
toric 1959 Legislature. 

In December of that year, I was 
one of eight politicians chosen by 
the state organization to take an 
all-New England leadership course 
sponsored by the Democratic Na- 



Zena Harris Temkin '44 served as Senator Abe RibicofF's 
political agent in his campaign for the Senate. She is pictured 
with Senator Ribicoff (left) and former Stamford Mayor 
J. Walter Kennedy. 

ional Cominittee. Some of the men 
from Massachusetts who were stu- 
lents at that conference became mem- 
Ders of the Praetorian Guard which 
surrounded President Kennedy. They 
ire part of the "White House staff" 
which Lyndon Johnson urged to stay 
3n with him when he assumed the 
Presidency. They were, and are, a 
jool, sharp, articulate, brilliant group. 
At the conference we argued for 
hours; I usually lost. 

The Discussion Group 

The two days of intensive work 
and discussion were marvelously 
stimulating and to this day — in all 
kinds of situations, not only the polit- 
cal ones — I am able to utilize some 
3f the things taught me at that time. 

The following spring was spent in 
teaching the same course all over 
Connecticut. Our pupils were town 
;hairmen, state central committee peo- 
ale. Young Dems. and members of 
;own committees and Democratic 
Women's Clubs. 

There was. of course, a reason for 
ill this emphasis on leadership. It 
was 1960 and there was a presidential 
election approaching which we Demo- 
crats felt we must win. We hoped that 
leadership in the right places would 
belp accomplish the goal if we had 
the right candidate. But. who was 
he? I had attended a dinner in Wash- 
ington in January and, sitting be- 
tween Dean Acheson and Maurine 
Neuberger, had listened to the six or 
seven men who aspired to the presi- 
dential nomination. I made no mental 
commitment at that time, but I 
thought maybe — just maybe — I could 
support Senator Kennedy. 

Once I was named a delegate to 
the National Convention in July 
1960. that support was taken for 
granted. Our state delegation was 
bound by unit (majority I rule and 
our Governor, Abe Ribicoff, had 
been working for months to bring 
delegates into the Kennedy camp. 
Certainly, Connecticut's twenty-one 
convention votes would be with him. 

I had never been in Los Angeles 
before the Convention and that par- 
ticular week might have occurred on 
another planet, so removed from 
reality did it seem. The Connecticut 
delegation camped around the pool 
at the Sheraton-West Hotel and left 
there only to go to meetings, restau- 
rants or the Convention floor. So im- 
portant was Governor Ribicoffs posi- 
tion that candidates came to us. But. 
the vast majority of delegates was 
exposed only to results and apart 
from their own caucuses, knew little 
of the activities behind the scenes. 
I was lucky to have a kind of private 
"■pipe-line" in the form of Ribicoif's 
executive aide. He told me enough 
to make me feel I was on the "in- 
side" and I was naively pleased. 

Among the Greats 

I was and still am impressionable. 
It impressed me to meet or eat or 
swim or speak with the greats, the 
near-greats and the famous among 
Democrats: Adlai Stevenson, Lyndon 
Johnson, Hubert Humphrey. Stuart 
Symington, the Roosevelt sons, Sam 
Rayburn and the rest. Finding nearly- 
forgotten friends in delegations from 
other states, dressing to go out to 
dinner at 1 a.m., discussing religion 
with Ralph McGill at midnight on a 

downtown street corner, being inad- 
vertently trapped in a phone booth 
by a gaggle of Texans and listening 
intently to their private caucus — these 
are only some of the bizarre moments 
which contributed to the unreal 
quality of the frenzied week in Los 

The fervor aroused in that week 
stretched woefully thin during the 
seemingly endless fall campaign. It 
was a hard and bitter time. But, when 
the exhausting election day and the 
irritatingly inconclusive election night 
were over. John Kennedy was ap- 
parently elected to the Presidency and 
I, very incidentally, was re-elected to 
the Legislature. 

Some Frustrations 

L nfortunately. however, the old 
Connecticut pattern of Republican 
House and Democratic State Senate 
prevailed, and the five-month session 
was one long frustration of obfuscat- 
ing tactics and minor accomplish- 
ment. No legislation could pass the 
majority party in one house unless 
reciprocity on another measure was 
agreed to by the majority party in 
the other house. The bargaining was 
frantic and often futile. But. this is 
the way our state government func- 
tions most of the time, and in the 
long run, the job is done — not bril- 
liantly but adequately. 

In the fall of that year, 1961, I 
offered my services to the State Cen- 
tral Committee to do what I could 
for the Senate candidacy of Abe 
Ribicoff, then in the Cabinet as 
Secretary of Health. Education and 
Welfare. My real reason was a great 
desire to see a state-wide campaign 


(Continued on page 32) 


Col. George Washington Scott took the far less traveled road of settling 
in Decatur and helped found the college in 1889. 

The College was named for Col. Scoffs mother, 
Agnes Irvine Scott. 


I il li 

Miss Nanette Hopkins came from 
Virginia to be principal of the school. 

The school opened under the name Decatur Female Seminary in this rented building later 
known as White House. 


The Road Not Taken 



NE may hardly think of Agnes 
Scott except in terms of the 
men and women whose lives 
have been so closely woven 
into its being. One's belief in 

: divine providence is deepened 

if we review the ways in which some of these 
became connected with our College. In reminding 
ourselves of the circumstances involved, I will call 
your attention to Robert Frost's poem, "Two 
Roads." It was a favorite of his and of ours. Many 
of us have heard him read it from our platform 
at least twenty times. These excerpts will illustrate 
the point: 


Two roads diverged in a yellow wood. 
And sorry I could not travel both 
And be one traveler, long I stood 
And looked down one as far as I could 
To where it bent in the undergrowth: 

Then took the other, as just as fair 
And having perhaps the better claim. 
Because it was grassy and wanted wear: . . . 

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I — 
I took the one less traveled by. 
And that has made all the difference. 

This experience is quite true in the relation of 
Colonel George Washington Scott and Agnes Scott 
College. He was bom in Alexandria, Pennsylvania, 
on February 22, 1829, the fourth child of John 
and Agnes Scott. When he was twenty-one years 
old, he became ill and was thought to have tuber- 
culosis. The road of experience and custom in that 
day was for tubercular patients to go to the South- 

west for a warm and dry climate. Mr. Scott, con- 
trary to the advice of friends, decided to take the 
less traveled road to health by going to Florida, 
then regarded by many as swampy and unhealthy. 
He recovered his health. 

When the Civil War came, it would have been 
logical for him to return to the North, where his 
brothers were enrolled in the Union army; but he 
decided to stick with his adopted state and fought 
so well that he was made a colonel and was in 
command of tlie Florida troops. 

Later Col. Scott decided to move to Atlanta for 
business reasons. The ordinary road for such a 
move would be to buy a home in Atlanta. He took 
the far less traveled one of settling in Decatur, 
which was not easily accessible from Atlanta and 
was a very small, sprawling village. This choice 
made all the difference, for he was on hand in 
Decatur when a new school was to start. 

In 1887 The Reverend Frank H. Gaines was the 
pastor of a well-established and prosperous Pres- 
byterian church in the Valley of Virginia, when 
he was called to the Decatur Presbyterian Church 
in Georgia. His friends could not imagine his 
accepting the call. The church was smaller than 
his and far less promising by human measure- 
ments; but he took tlie less traveled road, and 
again it made all the difference. Just then he con- 
tracted a very serious case of typhoid fever, and 
his friends felt sure it was a sign that he ought not 
to leave Virginia, but he still felt a clear call to 
do the unusual. Wlien he saw the need of a school 
for girls, he and Col. Scott became partners in the 
enterprise that is Agnes Scott. 

(Continued on next page) 21 

The Road Not Taken 


In the autumn of 1889, Miss Nanette Hopkins 
was registered to enter Vassar College. She had 
graduated from Hollins Institute but did not have 
a degree. She felt that the two additional years 
at Vassar would equip her for the teaching she 
wished to make her life-work. Only a few weeks 
before the college was to open. Rev. Gaines from 
Georgia came to her Virginia home and invited her 
to become the principal of a new school in Decatur. 
It was to be called Decatur Female Seminaiy but 
had as yet no building, no faculty, and no students. 
Its total assets were a subscription list for $.5,000, 
which had not been collected. Her family felt it 
most unwise for her to make a change in plans, 
and the financial inducements were not large; but 
Dr. Gaines was very persuasive, and the need of 
the school appealed to her. She took the less trav- 
eled road, and it again made all the difference. 
She accepted "for only a year," but she never pur- 
sued her degree, and no one felt she needed it. 

In 1891. Miss Louise McKinney was also 
seriously thinking of further study. She had grad- 
uated from the State Teachers" College in Harrison- 
burg, Virginia, and had done successful teaching, 
but she wished to have a degree. Again, Dr. Gaines 
went to Virginia in search of an English teacher, 
and again he was successful. He persuaded Miss 
McKinney to come to what was known then as 
Agnes Scott Institute. The approved thinking of that 
day would have been that she should go on with 
her education and then teach in her native state 
of Virginia, for Georgia was far away, backward 
in many ways, and had not then recovered from 
Sherman's march. But Miss McKinney, like Col. 
Scott, Dr. Gaines, and Miss Hopkins, took the less 
traveled road, and again it made all the differ- 
ence. She has been on tlie Agnes Scott campus 
for seventy-three very fruitful years; "she is the 
only person of my acquaintance who has been the 
head of a principal department of a first-class 
college without even a bachelor's degree, and no 
one need apologize for her. 

In 1887 The Rev. Frank Gaines was called to the Decatur 
Presbyterian Church and became a partner in the enter- 
prise that is Agnes Scott. 

Frances Winship Walters, the college's greatest benefac- 
tor, was among the first boarding students at Agnes Scott. 



Thinking of Misses Hopkins and McKinney re- 
minds me of many other career women, who, like 
them, were pretty and interesting, and who could 
have no doubt followed the usual road of marriage 
and family and home, but who chose the less- 
traveled road of notable careers. Agnes Scott could 
not have been the fine college it is without the 
dedicated services of such women. I never knew 
any of them who seemed to regret the choices or 
who seemed to discount husbands as did the novel- 
ist, Marie Corelli. The latter is said to have re- 

I marked, "I have a dog that growls all morning, 
and a parrot that swears all the afternoon, and a 
cat that stays out all night: why should I bother 
with a husband?" 

I would like to follow in detail the contributions 
of some of these career women, but I will mention 
only one — Carrie Scandrett. She graduated from 
Agnes Scott in 1924. where she had been President 
of Student Government. She assisted in Miss Hop- 
kins' office for a period and then went East to take 
her M.A. degree in personnel and administration. 
It looked to us as if we had made a big mistake 
in letting her do that, for Syracuse, Cornell, and 
other places wanted to keep her. I was particularly 
disturbed by the pressure from Comell. It offered 

1 her the freedom of graduate life, more money, and 
more comforts than Agnes Scott could provide. 
Staying there would have been the normal choice, 
but she decided to return to Agnes Scott, much to 
our delight and relief. Only two women — she and 
Miss Hopkins — have been Dean of Students during 
seventy-five years, and what a difference it has 

Unexpected Choice 

My own coming to Agnes Scott was the result 
of an unexpected choice that made a great deal 
of difference to me rather than to the College. In 
late 1914 I was elected President of Westminster 
College for men in Missouri and had no serious 
doubt about accepting the work. I had visited the 
college and liked it. It had the support of both 
Presbyterians U.S. and U.S.A.; it had a good plant, 
no debt, and a very lovely home for the President. 
However, before I had given acceptance, a long 

distance call from John J. Eagan (chairman of the 
Finance Committee of Agnes Scott's Board of Trus- 
tees and a personal friend) asked me to come to 
Atlanta for a conference with him. Dr. Gaines, 
and others. In the meeting that followed, I was 
offered the position of Registrar at Agnes Scott. 
The College was not then impressive. Its total 
assets were only $450,000, and it had a debt of 
$6.5,000. The salary' offered was less than I would 
get in Missouri, and the house offered was far 
from interesting. It was the overwhelming convic- 
tion of Dr. Gaines that education for women would 
be the most important work in the next fifty years 
that changed my plans and led me from handling 
boys at Darlington School and from going to West- 
minster to teach them there. It has been very won- 
derful for me but not along the road I had expected 
to travel. 

Largest Single Gift 

In 1891 Frances Winship of Atlanta was ready 
to go away to school. At that time the best known 
boarding school for girls in the area was Lucy 
Cobb at Athens, Ga. Her older sisters had gone 
there. A daughter of Col. Scott had been a student 
at Lucy Cobb. The traveled road would certainly 
have taken her to Athens. However, she chose to 
be among the first boarding students at Agnes Scott 
Institute, then only two years old. What a differ- 
ence her coming has made! She loved Agnes Scott 
and gave generously to it while she lived, and in 
her will she more than doubled the endowment of 
the College with a gift of $4,500,000! 

In 1944 The Reverend Wallace M. Alston was 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Charles- 
ton, W. Va. This was the third largest church in 
the Presbyterian General Assembly; it was well- 
staffed and doing a great work. The Druid Hills 
Presbyterian Church of Atlanta rather timidly 
issued a call to him. There seemed no good reason 
for him to make the change. The traveled road 
would lead him to stay in Charleston, but he 
accepted the call to the smaller church with much 
less prestige and financial resources and without 
an adequate sanctuary. What a difference it made! 
Dr. Alston was close to Agnes Scott, was soon 


(Continued on next page) 


The Road Not Taken 


elected a member of tlie Board of Trustees and was 
ready to become Vice-president, then President, as 
he probably would never have thought of doing if 
he had stayed in West Virginia. 

Scores of other individuals have had their lives 
linked with that of Agnes Scott in ways that seemed 
unlikely, but which have proved to be of great value 
in the history of the College. 

The life of Agnes Scott is closely knit with those 
of individuals, but other contacts and plans have 
gone along less traveled paths. One of these has 
to do with the relation of the institution to the 
Presbyterian Church. Before Decatur Female Semi- 
nar}- was organized in 1889. nineteen Presbyterian 
schools had died in Georgia, three of them in 
Decatur. The founders of what is now Agnes Scott 
did not want another funeral, but they did want 
the influence of the church. The only traveled path 
in this field was to have a school controlled and 
supported by a presbytery or a synod. The Agnes 
Scott trustees decided to have a school independent 
of any church court, and yet to have Presbyterians 
on the Board and thus have a tie through individuals. 

This was an untraveled road, never tried before. 
However, the educational leaders of the General 
Assembly liked the idea and set up a category that 
only Agnes Scott fitted — termed an "affiliated 
Presbyterian" school. This has worked well. The 
College has rendered a larger service to the church 
in providing more full-time Christian women work- 
ers than any of the other technicallv "Presbvterian" 
colleges, but the denomination as such has never 
contributed to its support. It is technically and 
legally independent, but reallv in the verv heart 
of church work. 

Wisconsin Election Influence 

One of the most astonishing experiences of 
Agnes Scott with the less traveled road was an 
election in Wisconsin in 1928. For several years 
the LaFolletes and the Progressive Party had dom- 
inated the state, but in 1928 the Republicans were 


victorious, and a man named Kohler was chosen 
Governor. He had a large manufacturing plant and 
needed a man to operate this while he served in 
his new office. He went to New York and invited 
Dr. H. J. Thorkelson to accept the job, and the 
latter did move to Wisconsin and did a good job 
for many years. All that was more than 1,000 
miles from Agnes Scott and seemed as unlikely to 
affect its history as happenings in Russia or China. 
However, the events were most important to us. 

General Education Board Grants 

Dr. Thorkelson in New York was the chief 
executive of the General Education Board (a Rock- 
efeller Foundation), and he had a very poor esti- 
mate of colleges for women and even of private 
colleges of any kind. He had frankly told us at 
Agnes Scott not to take the trouble to bring any 
applications for Rockefeller money. However, 
when the unusual Republican victory in Wisconsin 
took him to the state, the General Education Board 
chose Trevor Aniett to be its President. He was a 
friend of private colleges and of those for women 
in particular. He was Chairman of the Board for 
our neighbor, Spelman College, and knew Agnes 
Scott well. He encouraged an application from us 
right away and helped to get the money. After thai 
time, Agnes Scott received over $1,500,000 in six 
grants from the General Education Board. Hu- 
manly speaking, none of this would have come if 
the less traveled road of a Republican victory in 
Wisconsin had not occurred. 

In each of these cases, the individual or group 
made its own free choice, a surprising one in many 
instances, and that illustrates the Biblical doctrine 
of free will. However, when we look back and see 
how each decision fitted into the growth and future 
of Agnes Scott, we are sure that God had His hand 
upon the decisions and the results all the while, 
and we call that predestination, which is just as 
Biblical as the other doctrine. 

Isn't God an interestinn; Heavenly Father, who 
gathers the threads of manv lives and weaves them 
into the Agnes Scott which is His College — 
and ours. 

President Emeritus James Ross McCain's coming to Agnes Scott 
was the result of an unexpected choice. 

Miss Louise McKinney, professor emeritus of English, has spent 
seventy-three fruitful years at Agnes Scott. 

The present Dean of Students, Miss Carrie Scandrett '24, is the 
second in the college's history. 

The third president in Agnes Scott's history. Dr. Wallace M. 
Alston, came to the college as vice-president in 1948. 

Wear Your 


ABOUT THE AUTHOR: A former president of the Alumnae 
Association and current president of the Class of 1939 which 
holds its 25th Reunion this 75th year, Jean maintains a lovely 
home for her two Edwards, husband and son, and holds a 
part-time position in the personnel department of Rich's, Inc., 
one of Atlanta's department stores. 

[ILL Durant, whom your Agnes 
Scott professors may disdain 
as an authority, but who has 
a memorable way of saying 
things about civilizations, 
reaches a chilling conclusion 
in his volume, The Life of Greece. As he describes 
the closing days of the second Atlienian empire 
he remarks, "The life of thought endangers every 
civilization that it adorns. ... As civilization 
develops, as customs, institutions, laws and morals 
more and more restrict the operation of natural im- 
pulses, action gives way to thought, achievement to 
imagination, directness to subtlety, cruelty to sym- 
pathy, belief to doubt . . . behavior becomes frag- 
mentary and hesitant, conscious and calculating, 
the willingness to fight subsides into a disposition 
to infinite argument. Few nations have been able 
to reach intellectual refinement and esthetic sen- 
sitivity without sacrificing so much in virility and 
unity that their wealth presents an irresistible 
temptation to impecunious barbarians. Around 
eveiy Rome hover the Gauls, around every Alliens 
some Macedon." 

Relax, I shall not debate Durant's conclusion i 
about civilization orvdraw parallels with present 
world conditions. There are far too many history 
majors and history professors, who might be pres- 
ent, for me to dare. But I do want to say that 
when you are graduated from Agnes Scott and 
leave to become a housewife, a technician, a junior 
economist, a copywriter, a teacher, or even if you 
go on to graduate school, you Athenians are going 
to '"meet up with" some Macedonians. You will 
not be able to go back, to deny your academic past, 
to stop thinking, to avoid doubt, any more than 
those ancient Atlienians could. But you could do 
something they did not. You could set about learn- 
ing from the Macedonians and, building upon that 
knowledge, become a leader among the hovering 
Gauls. Certainly other graduates have done so. 

So why bring up the subject? Students of the 
sixties cannot imagine its being a problem, but it 
will be for some of you. You will meet unsubtle 
types who giggle when you pronounce a French 
word correctly, or know what existentialism is. 



or are even aware that Night of the Iguana is not 
a treatise on the nocturnal habits of lizards. You 
will have to learn to suffer silently through the 
repeated reading of some woman's club creed that 
is a rosary of cliches. You may even be compli- 
mented by some superior on your "versality." 
If you do not "watch out" you will find yourself 
trying to deny Athens, purposely using speech and 
phrases that do not come naturallv. not mentioning 
the book you are reading because the rest of the 
group does not have the filthy habit. 

Responsibility of Stewardship 

But think for a moment if vou are tempted. 
You will have spent four years honing this already 
excellent intellectual equipment each one of vou 
has, and you really cannot afford to let its edges 
get dull. God gave you a mind. Your parents or 
your teachers recognized this mind, and few of 
you can take credit for having given anything 
more than willingness-to-accept financial and men- 
tal aid in its development. Not until you finish 
Agnes Scott will you have an opportunitv to show 
what you are going to do with your inheritance. 
You must not sit in the scomer's seat and feel 
superior, or be frozen into immobilitv bv the 
"impecunious barbarian's" shocking behavior, or 
let your "life of thought" in college endanger your 
active role in whatever segment of society you 
enter. You cannot just talk about the inadequacies 
of your children's Sundav school teachers. You 
cannot just attend lectures and discussion groups 
on government or personnel policies. If yoti play 
only these spectator roles, your behavior will be- 
come "fragmentary and hesitant." You will talk 
yourself out of action and achieve only "endless 

You cannot afford to and there is really no 

reason why you should — let vour intellectual tools 
suffer corrosion. And thev will, // you keep them 
locked in a mental vault, like the illegal possessor 
of a great painting, who dares not admit to the 
world that he has it. An automobile needs to be 
driven and a mind needs to think; and a person 
needs to take action resulting from thought. No 
one says it will always be easy to make "intellec- 

tual refinement and esthetic sensitivity" mesh with 
the stick-shift life of domesticity. Feeding formu- 
las, the teething cycle, and making paper mache 
masks for the skit at Cub Pack meeting will make 
it difficult to remember that your education gave 
you a grave responsibility of stewardship, like the 
possession of great wealth. You may even forget 
to how many you owe a debt, and that your riches 
are not yours alone. 

Now having talked about you Athenians, let me 
say a word in behalf of the Macedonians, not that 
they need it because they won, you know! After 
college you may well pass through three stages. 

First, there will be the awe at having a real job 

if it is your first, satisfaction at being paid for the 
work you do, delicious release in having no paral- 
lel reading, no test to studv for. no papers to write. 
Second, there will be surprise and delight over how 
much of your college material you are able to put 
to use. ^liether you are planning a safety cam- 
paign, teaching a leadership course, or nmning 
down a money shortage, the research into the back- 
ground of the problem, the gathering of concrete 
examples to back up your conclusion are all tech- 
niques you have been practicing during your col- 
lege years and will present no mystery however 
different the environment in which you mav be 
using them. 

Virtue of Humility 

But the third stage will last longer and is much 
more important to reach as early as possible. Some- 
one once asked me if. having met and talked with 
various members of a junior executive training 
group, I thought there was any subject or phase 
of the program that needed adding to or strength- 
ening. I said in all sincerity that what they needed 
most was a course in humility. You see, starting 
salaries in such groups in most businesses today 
are higher than those that production-line em- 
ployees, for example, with many years experience 
are paid because the young people in the execu- 
tive training group have great potential. And yet. 
when such an inexperienced young person is first 
placed in a supervisory capacity, the worker is the 
one who teaches and the junior executive needs to 


(Continued on next page) 


Wear Your Education Becomingly 


listen with humility. The recent college graduate 
may be made assistant to a manager who wants 
the "Eyetalian" imports checked and the "colyums" 
added. Having her ears thus assaulted, the new 
assistant just might feel too superior to note that 
this same manager operates a large business, main- 
tains discipline without friction over many em- 
ployees, has a staggering grasp of figures and 
detail both past and present, instinctively organizes 
and plans, shows originality and initiative, even 

sees through the superiority complex, and again 

quoting Durant on Macedon "has all the virtues 

except those of civilization!" He might not know 
whether Sappho, Shakespeare or Shelley came 
first, or whether Evtushenko is poet or foreign 
minister. He is a Macedonian, and you, the junior 
executive, the recent graduate, can learn from him 
or snicker at him, depending upon whether you 
are staying in the second stage or have reached 
the third. 

Educational Levels 

Possibly no one here today would have so short 
sighted an approach as has just been described, 
but there have been a few such at Agnes Scott 
in years gone by. In fact, on the very first Black 
Cat week end after I was graduated, four hundred 
years ago, the following incident took place. Within 
some three weeks following Commencement, al- 
most by accident, I entered an antedilurian ver- 
sion of junior executive training at a local retail 
establishment, and by fall had been placed to sell 
in the book department to prove whether I could 
cope with the fundamental job in a selling organi- 
zation. Someone invited me back to the college on 

that October night and I sat beside a student whom 
I had known for many years. She asked about my 
present occupation and when told, remarked — now 

that I recall, in quite an Athenian tone "Well, 

of all things, an Agnes Scott graduate selling in a 
store!" When my blood pressure came down to 
normal, I began to view the Macedonians with 
much more respect then and there. There are, you 
will find, several kinds of intelligence, not all of 
them tied inseparably to I.Q. or formal education. 
You must regard the world of business, if that 
is where you go after your undergraduate days, 
or the world of PTA's and garden clubs, or teach- 
ers' meetings and obnoxious parents as another 
level of education from which there is fully as 
much to learn as there was at Agnes Scott where 
you were given matchless means of mastering it. 
And the greatest of these tools should be the open 
mind which is the aim of a liberal arts course. 

Gold Worth Owning 

So what have I said? First, that you will be 
forever marked by your education. Second, that 
you must wear it neither like a family crest nor 
a scarlet letter. Third, that it is an inheritance 
that must be wisely re-invested to pay future divi- 
dends to others. Fourth, that your kind of wealth 
is not the only honest coin of the realm. There 
are others who have gold worth owning and 
you Bachelors-of-Arts-to-be could use some of it. 
Finally, when you receive your degree and start 
out, you face the dangers of adjusting to life in 
Macedonia, but you come down from the Athenian 
hills with the finest set of weapons the combined 
efforts of you, your parents and your faculty can 
forge. If you put them to use rather than stand 
them like trophies on the shelf, your life of thought 
will not endanger the civilization that it adorns, 
only strengthen it. 



Where There's a Will, There s a Way 


, , , ai 

f in 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Current president of the Alumnae Asso- 
ciation, Sarah Frances exemplifies the alumna in the profes- 
sions. She is an extremely competent attorney in Decatur, Go., 
known particularly for her work in estate planning, and has 
just been appointed to the Governor's Commission on the 
Status of Women. 

NE of the most ancient rights 
for which freedom loving civi- 
lizations have fought and even 
given tlieir lives is that of the 
enjoyment of property. Our 
American Constitution guaran- 
tees to all life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness and 
the protection of property rights. As Americans we 
have an amazing histoiy of ambition and accumula- 
tion of wealth; yet it is unbelievable how inattentive 
and careless we are toward conserving the products 
of our lifetime labors for loved ones who may 
survive us. Lawyers who are engaged in the field 
of estate planning are astounded at tliis paradox 
of inconsistency. 

The major general proposition is that virtually 
everyone should have a valid legal will. Only in 
this way can we be assured tliat our property goes 
to those we want to have it. If we fail to exercise 
this privilege, the law takes over and prescribes 
who does inherit, in what proportion, and regulates 
the administration of the estate. This often results 
in a gross miscarriage of our wishes and in need- 
less administrative expense and burdensome detail. 
For example, if I were to die intestate, my 
legal heirs at law would be my fifty-two first 
cousins and six aunts and uncles. An administrator 
would have to be appointed; he would be required 
to post bond in double tire amount of the estate; 
after court orders and legal advertisement my 
property would be sold at public sale, undoubtedly 
at a loss, and the balance divided in small portions 
equally among these fifty-eight people, some of 
whom I haven't even seen in years. This is the 
penalty that my neglect would impose on those 
close to me. (Continued on next page) 



Where There's a Will 


While this ludicrous situation would not happen 
to a person with a spouse and children, I cannot 
emphasize too strongly that anyone with minor 
children or grandchildren needs a will. Property 
should never be left directly to minors, and we 
should not allow chance to decide that they might 
inherit through intestacy. 

First, who may make a will? In Georgia every 
person is entitled to do so unless he is laboring 
under some legal disability arising from lack of 
mental capacity, from being under the specified 
age, or from lack of perfect liberty of action, as 
in cases of fraud or undue influence. 

Penny Wise, Pound Foolish 

It may be of historical interest to Agnes Scott 
alumnae that about the time America was being 
colonized women were classed in England with 
criminals, idiots, and imbeciles as not being ca- 
pable of making a will. We have progressed con- 
siderably from the time when immediately upon 
marriage a woman's property became the property 
of her husband, and she had no right to dispose 
of it by gift, will, or otherwise. To illustrate these 
changes, I quote our famous Chief Justice Bleckley 
when he declared in the mid-1880's in the case of 
McNaught vs. Anderson, 78 Ga. .50.3, that "the 
legal unity of husband and wife has, in Georgia, 
for most purposes been dissolved, and a legal 
duality established. . . . Legislative chemistry has 
analyzed the conjugal unit, and it is no longer 
treated as an element, but as a compound. A hus- 
band can make a gift to his own wife, although 
she lives in the house with him and attends to her 
household duties, as easily as he can make a 
present to his neighbor's wife. This puts her on 
an equality with other ladies, and looks like 

The laws diff'er among the states as to a person's 
freedom to leave all of his property to others than 
his family members and as to the amount of mental 
capacity required to make a valid will. The premise 
in Georgia is that every person is entitled to leave 

his property to any one he chooses, even to th 
exclusion of his wife and children (with an as 
ception in large estates) ; and in our state preciou 
little mental capacity is required to make a will 
If the testator understands the nature of his act ii 
making a will, knows what property he has am 
who are his family relations, he is generally con 
sidered competent. A careful lawyer wants to avoic 
a will contest and takes every precaution to assun 
himself of the mental competency of the testa toi 
before drafting a will. 

Each will should be tailored to a person's famil) 
situation and property holdings. However, wha 
almost everyone wants is the so-called "simple 
will." Never have so many been so mistaken aboul 
their needs in this important area of their lives 
and so penny wise and pound foolish. 

The most common family group is a man and 
wife with a child or children. The husband and 
wife usually wish to leave everything to each other 
if one survives; and if not, to the children. So 
often they will insist that it is unnecessary to pro- 
vide a contingent trust for the children who may 
be minors because, they say, if one spouse dies 
while the children are under age, the survivor 
will take care of the problem then. 

It is not wise to leave the vital interests of 
children to the future for af least three good 
reasons: One, in these days of the great American 
traveling public, it can and does happen that hus- 
band and wife are killed in a common accident, 
and this contingency must be foreseen. 

Complementary Wills 

Two, as tragic as disasters are which take both 
parents at once, what disturbs thoughtful attorneys 
is the knowledge gained from experience that 
people postpone making a will. Even if one spouse 
survives the other, there is no assurance that the 
survivor will do anything about making a new 
will containing proper provisions for minor chil- 
dren or grandchildren. I consider it highly desir- 
able that a will be drafted for both husband and 
wife at the same time, so that the two instruments 
will complement each other. Where there is any 
fair possibility that minor children could be bene- 



iciaries, trust or testamentary guardian provisions 
or them are extremely important, so that they 
■an be cared for in nearly the same way as the 
)arent would do if living and so that these interests 
ire protected in any eventuality. 

Three, many people maintain that they have so 
ittle property that it doesn't warrant making a 
vill. My answer is that the smaller the estate tlie 
nore urgent it is to preserve it. 

Impact of Taxes 

If minor children survive a parent who did not 
eave a will or who failed to provide for them 
properly in his "simple will." they have good 
reason to feel cheated. Should it become necessary 
o handle the minors" estates through the courts, 
leedless expense and circumscribed legal pro- 
'edures often eat up their inheritance and limit 
jr make impossible any growth in assets. We can 
vouchsafe that this is not what any parent would 
A^ant, but this is the result of procrastination or 
refusal to spend a small amount more to get a 
Droperly drawn will. 

The first responsibility of an attorney is to come 
o know the family situation so that he can be 
ilerted to special problems which require con- 
deration in estate planning. The testator may 
lave a closely held family business and valued 
mployees calling for particular attention; one 
hild may have a handicap necessitating special 
provisions; another may be endowed with unique 
alents making it advisable to provide extraordi- 
laiT expenditure from the estate for him; one may 
3e a spendthrift, an alcoholic, or have an undesir- 
able spouse; a son may be highly successful or a 
daughter married to a man with money, whereas 
another child has perhaps great need for financial 
assistance; or there could be children of a prior 
marriage for whom definite provision should be 
made. Often it is inadvisable to leave any con- 
siderable estate to children upon their reaching the 
legal age of twenty-one. Tlirough planning, differ- 
ent ages can be set up at which beneficiaries will 
receive percentages of their inheritance and thus 
minimize the danger of their squandering monev 
or property through immaturity. 

Husbands or wives feel strongly sometimes that 
they do not want a second husband or wife to 
enjoy the family treasures. These very human 
desires can be carried out if you discuss them with 
your attorney. 

Taxes are a major factor in the cost of living 
today and cannot be ignored in careful estate plan- 
ning. Generally the biggest item of cost in trans- 
ferring property from one estate to another is the 
estate tax. Thus it must be part of the planning 
of anyone who has an estate exceeding $60,000 
to consider the impact of estate taxes at his death. 
The value of the estate, for this tax purpose, in- 
cludes all life insurance regardless of the bene- 
ficiary to whom it is payable. Most people would 
surely prefer to conserve their property for their 
beneficiaries rather than to pav out more than is 
necessary in taxes. By entering upon a calculated 
plan of making lifetime gifts, bv use of the marital 
deduction provisions in a will, through trusts, and 
charitable bequests, estate taxes can be minimized 
or avoided altogether. Here's how the saving in 
Federal tax works out in a $200,000 estate owned 
bv the husband: 

Gross estate 
Specific exemption 

// trust is 
not used 


// trust is used 

for excess over 

Marital Deduction 


;t estate 



ss marital 

deduction (l/o) 



Taxable estate 

when husband dies 40,000 
Federal estate tax 4.800 


Taxable estate of 

wife on her later 

death (received 

from husband) 



Federal tax 

HI. 000 


By splitting the husbands estate into the marital 
deduction, one-half for the sole benefit of the wife 
and the second half for her use during life and 
at her death for die children or other beneficiaries, 
the same money was not taxed twice, and $26,200 
was thus saved for the family. 


(Continued on next page) 


Where There's a Will 


It is frequently overlooked that phenomenal 
savings can be effected through lifetime gifts, or 
testamentary bequests to charitable or educational 
institutions. Some may prefer to set up a trust 
providing lifetime benefits for individual bene- 
ficiaries with tlie remainder (at the death of all 
beneficiaries) going to a charity or an educational 
institution. If this plan is feasible, it has the 
advantages of making the estate assets available to 
designated beneficiaries for so long as they live, 
effecting spectacular tax savings, and making a 
great contribution to mankind by ultimate distri- 
bution to the education of our future citizens or 
to other charitable causes. 

During Agnes Scott College's seventy-five years 
some magnificent bequests have been made to the 

College through the wills of alumnae, faculty mem 
bers, and other friends. In planning our estates 
both lifetime and testamentary, at this vital mo 
ment in Agnes Scott's history we who are alumnat 
have a unique opportunity to make contribution 
to the College which can be deducted from incomt 
taxes now or to employ testamentary provisioni' 
which will reduce estate taxes later. 

In addition to the methods previously mentioned 
other assets which are particularly attractive foi 
gifts to our College are stocks which have appre 
ciated in value. We cannot sell them because of i 
high capital gains tax, but they may be given t( 
Agnes Scott College, and we can take a tax deduc 
tion for their present higlj value without reducing 
cash reserves. Another tax gain may be realizec 
by making a gift of insurance palicies to the Col 
lege. The revenue code will permit a current in 

I CHOSE POLITICS (Commued from page 19) 

from the inside. Although I admired 
Governor RibicofF for his abilities 
and respected him for his integrity, 
we had never been particularly 
cordial. As a matter of fact, at our 
first private meeting he had practi- 
cally thrown me out of his office. 


That happened in February of 
1959 when I. a brash, freshman 
legislator who didn't know any better, 
barged into his office and advised 
him that my comer of Connecticut 
might as well secede to Massachusetts 
for all the good we were deriving 

from the way he was governing thf 
state. I continued in this vein fo? 
quite twenty minutes, throwing in { 
few choice appellations along the way 
until he had enough. I was no mort 
to him than a gnat buzzing arounc 
his eyes; but he is a man with a re 
markably short temper where gnats 
are concerned. He politely and 
thoroughly demolished me in about 
four sentences and although there 
were two exits from his office, in m} 
confusion I could find neither. H 
pointed out the nearest. 

And here I was, a few years later, 
offering to help. The offer was even 
tually accepted and then I found ou1i 
what it means to be consumed by a 
job. It soon became evident that 1 
would not have time to run for my ow? 
reelection. I didn't care. For eighli 
months I talked, thought, acted, atf 
and drank only in the interest o\ 
reaching one particular goal. I be 
came a crashing bore to everyone 


come tax deduction for insurance premiums and 
also an estate tax deduction for the face amount 
of the policy if it is properly assigned to Agnes 
Scott. This arrangement not only makes possible 
a substantial gift to the College without changing 
your present position but also will result in a 
smaller estate tax and a larger net inheritance to 
your beneficiaries. 

One more point should be considered. There is 
a rather common misconception regarding jointly 
held property. Without going into the ramifications 
on this subject, I will simply point out that many 
problems can arise in joint ownership situations. 
One fact which is not generally known by the lay- 
man is that in the case of joint ownership the 
Internal Revenue Service takes the position that 
all of the property actually belonged to the first 
one to die, and the taxes on the whole property 

are levied on his or her estate, except to the extent 
that the survivor can prove a contribution to the 

I was asked once to make a talk on Estate Plan- 
ning and Wills, and an imaginative Program Chair- 
man announced in the press that my subject would 
be "Solid Gold Securities." The best way to make 
secure your "solid gold securities" is to select a 
competent lawyer experienced in this field and 
prepare your will now. When a matter as impor- 
tant as the eventual distribution of your estate is 
at stake, do not try to "do it yourself." Bear in 
mind that "a little learning is a dangerous tiling," 
and that "he who has himself for a lawyer has a 
fool for a client." Consult your lawyer and, if 
indicated, he will call in other experts in the field 
such as an accountant, a life insurance representa- 
tive, and bank trust officers. 


who was not involved in the cam- 
paign. (Fortunately, my husband 
was.) But, I loved it! 

Governor Ribicoff is an ideal can- 
didate who thinks fast, works 
assiduously, campaigns at a gallop 
and has an almost infallible political 
intuition. He expects no less from 
his staff. It was vitally necessary that 
the three or four of us most intimate- 
ly concerned with his campaign be 
able to grasp ideas immediately and 
solve problems instantly. We had to 
be able to pick the salient point, the 
vita! information from a plethora of 
points and information. We had to 
recognize it promptly when the ma- 
chinery of the campaign started to 
falter. And we had to fix it — fast! 
One becomes tough and dedicated 
under these conditions. There was 
ice-water in my veins and wariness 
in my mien. In other words, I be- 
came a "pro." 

My title was "poUtical agent," a 

statutory term loose enough to cover 
every contingency. And there were 
all kinds of contingencies. I had 
found it difficult to balance my own 
check-book every month, but now I 
was responsible for the care and 
spending of a quarter of a million 
dollars. I had been known for my 
irreverent sarcasm, but now I had to 
be tactful and diplomatic with all 
breeds of political prima donnas. I 
had always hated the telephone as a 
means of conversation, but now I 
had to spend about six hours on the 
telephone every single day talking to 
delegates, mavericks, trouble-makers, 
crack pots, friends, volunteers and 
rumor-mongers. I had always avoided 
face-to-face combat, but now I had 
to be bluntly honest with the candi- 
date and tell him the bad as well 
as the good even though it usually 
meant an uncomfortable few minutes. 
All this was part of the job. I was 
often harried and occasionally an- 

guished. I don't think it showed. 

And then it was over — success- 
fully. Since then I've been hibernat- 
ing. Looking back over the past five 
years, I know I wouldn't have missed 
them for the world. The by-products 
are many and varied. I think I may 
have done some good as a legislator. 
I have learned to listen — really 
listen — when people talk to me. I 
have made some wonderful friends 
who are good at their jobs and vi- 
brating with their interest in life. My 
children are very much aware of 
their world and the systems that run 
it, much more than most young peo- 
ple. I have been in every one of the 
169 towns of Connecticut and have 
seen the beauty of the land and the 
problems of governing it. I have met 
people from all walks of life, people 
I never would have met had I chosen 
to lead a typical life as the wife of a 
dentist in a small city in Connecticut. 
I didn't choose to. I chose politics. 



Atlanta And 
Agnes Scott 

speak of the progress of Atlanta and Agnes 
Scott College is to speak of notable past per- 
formances and exciting future potentials. For 
three quarters of a century now our city, our metro- 
politan area, and Agnes Scott College have been as- 
sociates in many areas of progress with widening hori- 
zons, always expanding opportunities, and stimulating 

In the first seventy years of constructive and com- 
patible association, both Atlanta and Agnes Scott, to- 
gether and separatelv. have achieved amazing records 
of advancement. It was onlv twenty-four years after 
Atlanta began rising from the destruction of the War 
Between the States that two remarkably farsighted and 
dedicated men met in Decatur — then our small neighbor 
city with onlv one thousand inhabitants — and founded 
the little Decatur Female Seminary which was to be- 
come the distinguished, internationally known Agnes 
Scott College of today. At that time Atlanta was also a 
small city with only some thirty thousand souls within 
its city limits. 

During the seventv-four years which have passed since 
The Reverend Frank H. Gaines and George \^'ashington 
Scott founded the small but sturdv forerunner of the 
present college, both Agnes Scott College and .Atlanta 
have increased astoundinglv in physical size, financial 
strength, regional and national significance. For ex- 
ample, Agnes Scott this year has an enrollment of 699, 

EDITOR'S NOTE: Ivan Allen, Jr. is Mayor of Atlanta and a mem- 
ber of Agnes Scott's Board of Trustees. This article is edited from 
an address he made to the Atlanta Alumnae Club in January as a 
major port of the Club's 75th anniversary year program. 

the largest in its history, representing some thirty states 
and a number of foreign countries. Its sixty-five acre 
campus in the heart of Decatur presents an impressive 
array of splendid new buildings, and more are on the 
way. Its financial assets now total more than S18 mil- 
lion, some Sll million of which is represented by en- 
dowment. All in all, Agnes Scott College as an institu- 
tion now is as substantial as the faith of its Presbyterian 
founding fathers. 

By comparison, the city of Atlanta now has a popula- 
tion of more than 500.000. Its tax digest has climbed to 
an all time high of SI, 203, 52.5. 000. Its position as busi- 
ness, industrial, financial, and transportation capital of 
the southeastern states is undisputed. 

Like Agnes Scott, along with its physical and financial 
advancement. Atlanta has maintained a high moral tone, 
integrity of spirit, a healthy social attitude capable of 
adjusting to the needs and challenges of changing times. 
By so doing Atlaiita has been able to foster and preser\'e 
a healthv racial climate and avoid the virus of violence 
which in the last few vears has infected so many cities 
throughout our nation. 

Truly the material progress shown by Atlanta and 
Agnes Scott in the first seventy-four years of association 
is amazing. Agnes Scott has contributed much to the 
economy of the Atlanta metropolitan area. But of far 
greater value — literally beyond price — has been Agnes 
Scotts contribution to the cultural, artistic, educational, 
and spiritual advancement of the Atlanta metropolitan 
area and to our region. Beyond our region Agnes Scott 
alumnae have spread the light of learning joined with 
independence of thought and firnmess of faith through- 
out our nation and around the world. 

To some extent it might be said that the often all too 



le line from St. Matthew. '"A prophet is not without 
iiiiior save in his own country."' might apply to Agnes 
5cott. For I doubt if many residents of our Atlanta 
netropolitan area, especially those who have moved 
lere during the last few years, are aware of how dis- 
inguished an educational institution Agnes Scott College 
s. Like so many well-established institutions and busi- 
lesses it is apt to be largely taken for granted. It carries 
an its important work of educating voung women to be- 
ome citizens of value wherever they go. quietly and 
.vithout fanfare. It has no football team to excite public 
nterest. It does not seek the limelight with campus capers 
jr academic controversies. But when suneys are made of 
he academic excellence of American institutions of 
ligher learning Agnes Scott always is rated among the 

That has been so over many years. For example, as 
far back as 1920, Agnes Scott won the distinction of 
being put on the approved list of the Association of 
American Universities, and that is the blue ribbon award 
n higher education in America. Agnes Scott is among 
the select sixteen of women's colleges east of the Mis- 
sissippi having chapters of Phi Beta Kappa, the scholar- 
■hip honorary society. Two recent national studies have 
ranked Agnes Scott among the top ten colleges for wo- 
men in the nation. 

I am sure it is comforting to President Alston and mv 
fellow trustees that Agnes Scott is also ranked among 
die top ten colleges for women in financial strength. By 
these and many other yardsticks of excellence Agnes 
Scott stands among the foremost colleges for women in 
our region and in our nation. 

But it is in the value of the lives of those who go out 
from their alma mater over our nation and around our 
world that Agnes Scott has its highest distinction. Now 

as Agnes Scott enters its seventy-fifth year, more than 
ten thousand alumnae are engaged Ln many walks of 
life. They carry with them — in tlie professions, in homes, 
in business, in government, in religious work, in educa- 
tion — that emphasis on excellence, that determination 
on efficiency, that outlook of Christian service which 
they learned and developed in their years on the campus 
in Decatur. Also, they have with them wherever they 
may go and live tlie ideal that never can they be satisfied 
with mediocrity. They always must look to the stars and 
strive with high ideals for excellence in whatever thev 

Wherever they go. whatever thev do. they spread the 
message of intellectual integrity and set an example of 
service on a high level. They take with them the breadth 
of vision and the widening of personal horizons the\ 
learned at Agnes Scott. Their ideals and example are 
particularly of value to our own South as it is now 
going through an extremely trying and difficult period. 
Our problems cannot be solved by issuing proclamations 
of protests or exerting pressures of prejudice. It is 
through the intelligence, integrity, and high character 
of people trained and disciplined to think realistically 
and constructively by schools and colleges of high quality 
that our challenges will be met and our problems solved. 

Agnes Scott is one of the centers of training to develop 
such thinking and tlie qualities of understanding and 
forbearance that will bring our region and our nation 
through the troubles which now beset us. 

During tlieir first three quarters of association in 
progress. Atlanta and Agnes Scott not only have grown 
together, they have grown up together. In the doctrine 
of the great Presbyterian founders of Agnes Scott, I am 
sure they are predestined to achieve greatness in their 
future association. 


(Continued from page 12) 

sure, contiiuie to grow and be passed on here, lor 
iwe are all part of a process, a living organism sucli 
as Burke was describing when he called society 
a contract and said "it becomes a partnership, not 
only between those who are living, but between 
those who are living, those who are dead, and tliose 
wlio are to be born."' In a way. we are celebrating 
ourselves when we celebrate our college, not with 
arrogance, but with joy at the privilege of being 
members one of anotlier. 

I liope you will forgive me if I have spoken 
today only of the aspects of the college which fill 
us with pride and love. I am very conscious that 

we have faults which need to be corrected; and 
it is part of the honesty of this Agnes Scott char- 
acter we cherish to admit them and work to over- 
come them. But on birthdays, it seems legitiinate 
to speak of what we want to celebrate. And so on 
this Founder's Day, I give you the qualities of 
Colonel Scott and the other founders, the qualities 
of our alma mater, which seem to me most cherish- 
able: the largeness of vision, the wisdoin in plan- 
ning, the indomitable courage, the loyal devotion, 
the willingness to do hard and self-sacrificing work, 
the intellectual and moral integrity, the continuing 
commitment to high purposes, in the hope that we 
may be, as far as in us lies, a worthy part of what 
Wordsworth calls "one great society on earth, the 
noble living and the noble dead." 



Now We Are Seventy- four 

OU may be aware of the Agnes Scott adage 
which states: "If we do something once at the 
College, it becomes a tradition." Such a tradi- 
tion is the Faculty Skit — or Faculty Revue — which is 
produced when the College is engaged in a financial cam- 

In January a campus campaign marked the climax of 
the 75th Anniversary Development Program, and the 
traditional faculty skit, this time based on ^ innie the 
Pooh and other A. A. Milne characters, was titled "Xow 
We Are Seventy-five." 

This made me think, as I contemplated how I might 
celebrate seventy-five years of alumnae in this column, 
that we are now seventv-four. And are you aware that 
there are a few alumni among us? As President Emeritus 
McCain tells the story, a few more students were needed 
to open the door of the Decatur Female Seminary in 
1889. so six little boys attended that first year. 

Certainly from seventy-four years of the experience 
of being alumnae we should glean wisdom and insight 
about ourselves, our own lives, and our relationships 
with Agnes Scott College. One way to reflect this, the 
way open to me. is the printed word in this magazine. 
So. with the advice and guidance of the Alumnae As- 
sociations Publications Committee, we asked several 
alumnae to write articles about themselves, the living 
of their lives. 

We received a veritable wealth of material — so much 
that we could not publish all the articles in this issue. 
Even automation has not vet solved the problem of ex- 
panding the printed page. But this just means that we 
shall rejoice in more articles bv alumnae in the suc- 
ceeding issues during this anniversary year. 

Another way of celebrating, open to me in my capac- 
ity as editor of the Quarterly, is to look to the future in 
the format, the design, of the magazine. It has been an 
exciting experience to create, with the astute assistance 
of the printer, a whole new concept of the magazine s 
form. Do you like the new look? I To reassure those 
who miss the Class \ews in this issue: we will publish 
this section again and again! i 

It is an axiom that a college is judged bv the people 


it produces, its alumnae. President Alston has expressed 
this far better than I can when he said: "The importajice 
of Agnes Scott as a college cannot be estimated by 
numbering our alumnae; the number, of course, will 
always be relatively small. \or can the contribution of 
this institution be measured accurately merely by 
determining the wealth or renown of our graduates. 
The ultimate test is the intrinsic worth of Agnes Scott 
students, here and after college days are over, in the 
homes they establish — the professional and business 
careers upon which they enter — the church, civic, 
educational, and social relationships that they maintain." 

I know of no yardstick, no set of statistics, which 
would perform the kind of measuring which Dr. Alston 
mentions. I only know that during the ten years I've 
sened as director of alumnae affairs. I've found cer- 
tain characteristics of alumnae to be evident. There is. 
thank goodness, no such thing as a "composite alumna." 
and I would not put any one of us into such a mold. I 
shall simply outline some of our common characteristics. 

In the area of pursuing academic excellence, a funda- 
mental purpose of this college, alumnae prove them- 
selves and the college. For seventy-four years, and at an 
increasing rate today, the alumna does graduate study, 
and her performance is usually of high order. And 
alumnae do teach — everything from nurserv school to 
psychiatry. Most important to the individual alumna, 
perhaps, is the teaching she does, in a different sense, 
for her children. The pattern is repeated: children of 
alumnae win academic honors in numberless colleges 
and universities. 

The Agnes Scott alumna is certainly articulate. She 
does not hesitate to tell Dr. Alston, for example, how to 
run the College — often to his despair. But she feels, 
quite healthily I think, free to speak her mind on the 
College or any other subject — and then to act on her 
reasoned judgment about a given situation. She takes 
the responsibility of being an educated woman in our 
society. Best of all. she leads others out of the current 
trap of cynicism, defeatism, hopelessness as a way of 
life — and will. I'm sure, do so for another seventy-four 

The 75tk Anniversary Lecture Series 


Wednesday, Feb. 26 

8:15 P.M. 


Friday, March 6 

8:15 P.M. 


Wednesday, April 1 

8:15 P.M. 


Thursday, April 16 

8:15 P.M. 


Date in May to be 



Friday, April 24 

8:15 P.M. 



Sunday, June 7 

11 A.M. 


Sa .»«~^c" 



Tuesday, May 5 

8:15 P.M. 


Monday, June 8 

10 A.M. 





,^^^ sco 


'' V ^•" 




Architect's rendering of new plans for the Dana Fine Arts building 

now under construction shows the exciting combination 

of Gothic and contemporary design. 

// .- .^3 


J anef Preston s Poetry / see page 9 



VOL. 42, No. 3 

SPRING 1964 


4 Bangkok Classroom 

Priscilla Slieppard Taylor 

7 Pioneering a Program in Mental Health 
Mildred Thomson 

9 I pon Our Pulses 

Janef N. Preston 

11 Faculty Skit 

15 Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

23 Worthy Notes 

Ann Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Mariane Wurst '63, Managing Editor 
John Stuart McKenzie, Design Consultant 


The Agnes Scott Alumnae Quarterly 
is published jour times a year (No- 
vember, February, April and July) by 
the Alumnae Association oj Agnes 
Scott College at Decatur, Georgia jor 
alumnae and jriends. Entered as second- 
class matter at the I'ost Office oj 
Decatur, Georgia, under Act oj August 
24, 1912. Subscription price, S2.0U per 


Spring comes to Agnes Scott- 
Caryl Pearson '64 


Cover, frontispiece, back cover, 
and photos on pp. 10 and 11 by 
Ken Patterson. Photo on p. 16 
by Billy Downs. Drawing on 
p. 7 by Joe McKibben. 


ans finite capacity cannot 
get hold of the ultimate meaning of life 

. . . but the idea of meaning 
"must always be ahead 
to set the pace of lifeT 

VIKTOR FRANKL : Man in Search for Meaning 

The Viennese psychiatrist spoke at Agnes Scott in 
February as part of the 75th Anniversary Lecture 

Bangkok Classroom 


Pris takes time out to study her guidebook during one of her frequent tours of Thailand. 

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: "Pris" used her Fulbright award to pursue 
graduate work at the University of London where she made an envi- 
able record. She married John Maxwell Taylor in 1957, and they and 
their two daughters have had tours of duty with the State Department 
in Korea and Thailand. 

I FTER years of never ei 
pecting to be in ai 
other classroom, 
found myself last yea 
teaching America 
literature and history to eleventh an 
twelfth graders in the Internationc 
School of Bangkok. This is a privat 
school operating under the genera 
supervision of the Thai governmen 
but run by American administrator 
with a predominance of America 
teachers and accredited in the Unitei 
States. It serves all the foreign corr 
munity in Bangkok, which is cor 
siderable because of that city's posi 
tion as a center for business enter 
prises, diplomatic missions, and ou 
own aid missions. 

Of the 1,200 students about three 
quarters were Americans; the res 
were a remarkable mixture. Al 
though many Thai schools have fin 
reputations, the Thai language ha 
no application outside Thailand 
Hence the American school sen'e( 
children of Indian. Japanese, Euro 
pean, and other diplomats and busi 
nessmen who preferred their childrei 
to know English. Children of thi 
local Chinese community made u] 
another large contingent. 

Despite my very limited experi 
ence, I shall attempt to give some 
thing of a profile of the America: 
high school students in such an en 
vironment. How do they react to thi 
challenges of living and learning ii 
a modern, tropical. Asian city? Dc 
the advantages outweigh the disad 
vantages of transient living for them? 
A secondary topic will be the ques 
tion of how the teacher must adap' 
material to the sophisticated interna 
tional young Americans and. simul 
taneously. to the assorted Australian 
German, Korean, and other students' 
in any given class. 

A key word in the discussion o; 
any topic connected with Bangkok i; 
"tropical," for a climate which flue 
tuates only between the "hot" and thf 
"hottest" season requires a continu 
ous effort at adaptation. It is ver) 
difficult to arouse or maintain muct 
intellectual excitement in such con 
tinuously enervating weather, and i' 
is unrealistic to expect students tc 


pend much time after school in sus- 
ained study. Incidentally, it is also 
lifficult for them to "identify" with 
lescriptions of "Snowy Woods!" 

In addition to having to fight the 
oporific effects of the heat, many of 
he American students who have 
raveled abroad much of their young 
ives appear to resent having to spend 
heir vital senior high school years 
iiway from the United States. Those 
ivho adjust best to the foreign en- 
vironment fall into two opposite cate- 
ejories: those for whom life overseas 
• s a new experience — a "dream come 
itrue" — or those who have always 
ived abroad and do not know what 
ithey are missing, or could be miss- 
ing, at home. Those who seem to 
have the haidest adjustment are stu- 
dents who have remained out of their 
homeland for perhaps five years at a 
stretch and who feel out of touch, 
sometimes nostalgic, and often cyni- 
cal bevond their years. 

Although almost all of the Ameri- 
cans in the Bangkok high school ex- 
pect to go to college when the\ grad- 
uate, the distance of Bangkok from 
the United Slates combines with the 
heat and these other factors to dimin- 
ish both intellectual competition 
among them and also the feeling of 
pressure to win acceptance at the 
college of their choice. Many of the 
students lack real roots in the L nited 
States and hence are less determined 
in their own minds on particular col- 
leges or geographical areas. Some 
also feel they can remain overseas 
with their parents and enter college 
at a date of their choice. 

The generally impermanent atmos- 
phere of an overseas post is another 
drawback for students caught up in 
it. Despite efforts of our government 
to shift families in the summer. 
lengths of official tours vary, and stu- 
dents often leave in mid-term. Ob- 
viouslv the preparation of the stu- 
dents entering the school varies 
tremendously, and some come armed 
with book reports or term papers 
from their previous schools which 
may. they think, come in handv 
again. With a teaching staff recruited 
locally, and from an almost equally 
mobile group, one can expect also 

that some students will gamble on 
Mrs. Jones' having to leave before 
they themselves do. 

Compared to schools in the United 
States, overseas schools often sponsor 
few extracurricular activities, and the 
community at large in Bangkok does 
not offer many of the recreations to 
which Americans are accustomed. 
The horseback riding. Thai dancing 
lessons, and endless birthday parties 
which make Bangkok a delight for 
younger foreign residents have less 
appeal for teenagers. Instead of the 
usual multifarious school sports, 
band, and active music program. 
Bangkok olTered little for teenagers 
beyond the downtown Elvis Presley 
movie, bowling, or swimming when 
clubs or beaches were available. Al- 
most no parents could in good con- 
science allow their children to drive 
in Bangkok's traffic, and "Gunsmoke" 
with Thai dialogue on television soon 
ceased to be much of an attraction. 

Other drawbacks to living over- 
seas during the senior high school 
vears are not necessarily endemic to 
a foreign situation but occur so fre- 
quently they may appear to he. Some 
American students in Bangkok echoed 
their parents" indifference to their 
surroundings and reluctance to ex- 
plore the unfamiliar. Many families 
abroad are busy with official enter- 
taining and have less time to super- 
vise their children. Servants can be 
a very mixed blessing, especially in 
the East where a Western child is 
still "master" or "madame" to the 
servant. Children abroad also often 
miss the friendshi]3s and activities 
connected in the Ignited States with 
churches because so many families 
let church affiliations lapse when thev 
are abroad. 

In Bangkok as in many other over- 
seas posts it is not easy for Ameri- 
cans to meet local youngsters. Few 
Thais entertain in their homes: the 
businessman's lunch at a restaurant 
is a common way adults maintain 
their contacts. A few American stu- 
dents were called upon from time to 
time to tutor children of Thai officials 
in English, but most others might 
never glimpse inside a Thai home. 
Thus the only chance many of the 

students have to practise their Thai 
language, which all are required to 
study in the international school, is 
in their kitchens at home. 

Nevertheless, some of the Ameri- 
cans did seize various opportunities 
to help with programs at Thai 
orphanages or at the School for the 
Blind, and many collected and de- 
livered toys and food to various 

Very typical of Thai architecture is this 
twentieth-century marble temple in Bangkok. 

charities around the country. Some 
of the most adventuresome tried 
living as many of the Thais do. on 
one of Thailand's many waterways, 
on the annual vacation raft trip away 
from civilization. A few families 
spent each available week-end visit- 
ing points of interest within a day's 
drive from Bangkok, and joined the 
Siam Society's day-trips to places 
difficult to reach except by organized 

In addition, the perceptive young 
American could absorb much from 


Bangkok Classroom 


the observance of the numerous local 
holidays, the brisk bargaining with 
drivers of Bangkok's three-wheel 
taxis, or the unusual experience of 
riding to school on a canal. Their 
observations turned up in poems re- 
garding lanes too narrow for Western 
cars, meditations on a timeless stone 
fragment, ballads on Bangkok bus 
riding, plays with scenes laid in 
China or themes based on the Bud- 
dhist philosophy — all alien concepts 
to youngsters steeped in "The Little 
Engine That Could'' and Log-Cabin- 
to-White-House legends. 

With respect to the classroom 
overseas, one should begin with the 
obvious comment that the American 
students can hardly fail to benefit 
from belonging to classes in which sev- 
eral nationalities, religions, and geo- 
graphic backgrounds are presented. 
One Chinese clarified the "overseas 
Chinese" concept when he wrote of 
his family's determination that, 
despite his travels from north China 
to Hong Kong, Taiwan, and finally 
Bangkok, he should be so well versed 
in his native dialect and customs that 
he could return tomorrow to his 
original village and be assimilated as 
though he had never been awav. The 
hostile comments of one Korean stu- 
dent on the Oriental exclusion laws 
of the 1920's can be more memo- 
rable than lectures bv an American 
instructor. TTie inability of three 
German boys to comprehend how anv 
criticism could be leveled against 
Theodore Roosevelt for his methods 
of seizing the Panama Canal gave 
the Americans some insight into Ger- 
man politics and habits of mind. 

Indeed, these same German stu- 
dents in our history class were later 
to provide their classmates with a 
good example of overly zealous na- 
tionalism. The Germans" initiallv pro- 
vocative defense of their country's 
leaders and policies throughout both 
World Wars sparked a great deal of 
classroom debate and research anions; 
all the students. The result was not 
only greater interest in the period 

This village elementary school is the complete opposite of the international School in Bangkok. 

but also some real comprehension 
of the ideologies involved, to say 
nothing of the complexities in making 
historical judgments. 

In an international class the 
minorities are not the only ones who 
reveal national sensitivities. In some 
instances the Americans reflected an 
insecurity which is not restricted to 
youth. Some sought assurance and 
proof that objectionable facts about 
America's past were not being hid- 
den or slanted by the author of their 
major text. The cynical reaction of 
the foreign students in the classroom 
to President McKinley's moralistic 
justification of Americas imperialist 
ventures at the turn of the century 
worried the young Americans. More- 
over, the Americans were inclined to 
be timid in criticizing others. Al- 
most overly instructed in tolerance, 
they tended to give even Naziism the 
benefit of the doubt. Communism, on 
the other hand, is a sufficiently cur- 
rent threat for them to be well in- 
doctrinated against it. 

The same youngsters who were in- 
clined to question seriously the mo- 
tives of the authors of their history 
texts, considered themselves too 
worldly for some of the literature 
they were offered. Just as manv urban 
elementary teachers in the United 
States have found the idealized white 
picket-fenced cottage illustrated 
primer too far removed from the ex- 
perience of their apartment or slum- 

dweller students, a teacher in a 
foreign environment finds manyi 
standard American textbooks too 
provincial or out of date for the audi- 
ence they must reach. It takes some 
effort to persuade jet age students, 
generally impatient with anything 
written before this century, to ac- 
cept Hawthorne's fatalism or Long- 
fellow's didactics and sentimentalityl 
on any terms. Some had been awayi 
from home too long to respond to 
Robert Frost, and found him either 
too simple or too difficult. Some even' 
assumed that Thoreau went to Wal- 
den to economize. Remarkably few 
recognized or comprehended any 
Biblical references. To these veteran 
travelers, James' The American 
seemed dated and almost ridiculous. 
To try to divert the cultivated con- 
temptuousness into creative critical 
lines, I resorted to occasional im- 
promptu writing assignments during 
class time on topics of which the stu 
dents had no previous knowledge. 1 
read to them brief excerpts from Wil 
Ham Allen White or e.e. cummings 
and required them to produce im 
mediate written critiques. Some stu 
dents who had never before revealed 
any great perc«ptiveness proved ca 
pable thinkers and writers wher 
caught off guard and given an occa 
sional vent for real satire. I woulc 
not make any dramatic claims foi 
how much my students learned. I 
however, learned a lot. 


ABOUT THE AUTHOR: A spokesman for the 
organization said: "We of the National 
Association for Retarded Children do not 
consider that Miss Mildred Thomson is a 
gift from Minnesota; she is a gift from God, 
for retarded children everywhere." 

Pioneering a Program 
in Mental Health 


N 1963, fifty-three years 
after graduating from 
Agnes Scott College my 
first and only book was 
published. Prologue, A 
Minnesota Story of Mental Retarda- 
tion. It is largely the story of the 
thirty-five years I worked in a pro- 
gram for the mentally retarded, years 
embracing an astounding change in 
philosophy and attitudes based on 
greatly increased knowledge and 

In 1924 I was employed by the 
Minnesota State Board of Control to 
work within its Children's Bureau as 
Supervisor of the Department for the 
Feebleminded and Epileptic. I was to 
help county child welfare boards 
understand and plan for the "feeble- 
minded" — now mentally retarded. 
This responsibility included acting in 
a liaison capacity between these 
boards and the state institution for 
the feebleminded, which was the main 
facility for providing care and train- 
ing outside the home. 

Other facilities were two small 
private institutions and some public 
school classes for the brighter chil- 
dren, children who could learn to 
read and write with varying degrees 
of proficiency, occasionally up to that 
required for the sixth or seventh 

Many of these brighter children — 

or adults — placed within the institu- 

(Continued on next page) 


Pioneering a Program 
in Mental Health 


tion had presented problems with 
which homes could not cope, espe- 
cially when there were also normal 

Comniunity Living 

In some instances parents of such 
children were also retarded. Thus, 
the unsocial behavior shown by the 
children — and parents — had been at- 
tributed to hereditary factors. Life- 
time residence for those in the institu- 
tion was therefore the usual recom- 
mendation in order to provide pro- 
tection. In addition they were to be 
made happy with recreational activi- 
ties and to be taught to perform tasks 
needed in the administration of the 

The Minnesota Board of Control, 
believing that self-support was possi- 
ble for many of this group, determined 
that they should be given a trial of 
again living in the community. "Club- 
houses'" were established where some 
of the girls could live and work in 
factories or laundries. Others worked 
and lived in private homes. Boys 
were usually employed on farms. 

Individual Stories 

The transition from institution to 
community living was not always 
easy. There was. for instance, Mary 
who wept because the clubhouse ma- 
tron had not told her where to find 
darning cotton: or Betty who threw 
temper tantrums and failed to hold a 
job until •=he was placed in a private 
home where the employer was pa- 
tient with her and had faith in her; 
or Janice who was kidnapped by her 
lover, and when found in poverty 
was the mother of twin daughters: or 
Billy, who managed to get to an- 
other state, visit a house of prostitu- 
tion — "but a nice one with pretty 
furniture" — acquire gonorrhea and 

then return hungry and cold, asking 
to be cared for. 

Each individual had his or her 
own story, sometimes humorous, 
sometimes tragic. Some were success 
stories; some were failures. 

There were other groups within 
the institution walls not capable of 
self-support: those completely help- 
less, infants even when adult in 
years: and those capable, if properlv 
taught, of learning self-care, simple 
tasks and social adjustment. 

These "children" came from all 
types of families. Many of them were 
desperate because of the effect this 
"different" child had on home life. 
The unsatisfactory behavior of the 
child was often partly due to a lack 
of understanding, training, and dis- 
cipline. There was also frequently an 
added emotional strain caused by 
the lack of an answer to the question 
of why such a child had been born 
into the home. 


The devastating effect of not know- 
ing the answer to "whv"' was poign- 
antly shown when a father came to 
me for help in planning for a twenty- 
five-year-old son who as an infant 
had been placed in a private institu- 
tion in another state. The family and 
friends were then told the babv had 
died at the hospital. Now twentv-five 
years later that institution was closing 
and sending the son to his father. 
One can only imagine the anguish of 
parents who must try to hide the 
birth of a baby and never see him. 
love him, or even speak of him! And 
then after those years of restraint and 
silence, to have him return as it 
were from the dead must have been 
almost unbearable. 

This was. of course, an extreme 
situation, but other parents in vary- 
ing degrees, and in spite of love for 
their children, suffered disappoint- 
ment, frustration, despair, and fear 
because often there was no answer to 
the question "why." In 1924 there 
was discussion of the Mendelian law 
as related to human reproduction and 
some vague mention of recessive 
genes. It was many years, however, 

before the laws of heredity were su 
ficiently understood for parents ti 
assert with confidence: "Anyone ma 
have a retarded child." 

Change of Attitude 

As the years passed there was t 
gradual change in the public attitude 
toward the retarded, both the brightei 
group and those more severely re 
tarded. Not only was interest shown, 
but there was faith that many could 
be acceptable members of society ii 
adequately trained and understood. 
This change in attitude became dra- 
matic in the late forties and the de- 
cade of the fifties. It was then that 
parents, many of them leaders in 
their chosen field but helpless con- 
cerning tlieir children, banded to- 
gether to work for greater considera- 
tion for them. This took place in 
Minnesota in 1946. In 1950 such 
local groups from all over the United 
States joined together to organize 
The National Association for Re- 
tarded Children. In Minnesota and 
nationally, parents now demanded: 
research into the causes as a basis 
for prevention; better institutions; 
more classes in the public schools, 
including classes for some of the 
severely retarded termed trainable; 
and community facilities such as 
clinics, day nurseries, activdtv centers, 
work shops, recreational facilities, 
and spiritual guidance by the 
churches. Activity was set in motion 
in all these areas, some of it based 
on laws and appropriations, and 
some on community response. Pro- 
fessional interest in all areas was 

This activity was beginning to get 
into full swing when I retired in 
19.59. Minnesota's prologue was by 
then ended. The first act of the drama 
of providing an adequate program 
for the retarded was being enacted, 
but the play even now is far from 
being ended. Parents, persons from 
many professions, state legislators, 
congressmen, the federal government, 
and the interested public are all par- 
ticipating. The climax is still in the 
future, but the goal of full oppor- 
tunity for all will be reached. 



" Upon Our Pulses" 


Here''s a taste from a 
forthcoming book 
of poems 

lanef says that the creation of a poem begins, for 
her, in a time of intense emotion. She describes 
this as "a state of incandescence, when one is very 
much alive to everything." 


". . . axioms in philosophy are not axioms 
until they are proved upon our pulses." 

John Keats 


My brother man 

Does all he can 

To hide himself 

From curious guess. 

But six steps more 

I creep to locked door — 

My clutched key 

Our loneliness. 

Witli foot held fast in rock, 

My mind girdles the globe Uirough lightning skies. 
But my human eyes 

Behold no revolving man-flung flame — 
Only, everywhere on the shriveled earth. 
The lame. 
In Peru . . . 
and Cameroon . . . 
in Pakistan . . . 
in Quemoy and Matsu . . . 
in Iran . . . 
in the Hebrides . . . 
and Brazil . . . 

and in the house beyond my hill 
The lame creep or stumble or lie still. 
Must I walk blind to touch the granite dark? 
Or deaf to know that death devours the lark? 

(Continued on page 12) 



Winnie the Pooh Revisited 

Rare candid studies of the hustle, bustle and anxie 
that form the fiber of great performances 






iny r ■" "^ - 


• --♦ 




Bird's-eye view of distinguished faculty members awaiting stage call 

Actors backstage enthralled with the emotion-packed drama. 

"Shellbound" Leyburn (r) consults Edward Ladd (Dr. Unafreud), and 
nurse Steele is horrified. 





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— 'Tt-^=5= 





Facuify approves Heroine Leyburn's proposal to forego teaching for entertaining, and Dr. Alston "covets" the idecr* 


(Continued ) 



Graces, contemporary dancers, inter- 
Pooh in borrowed "leotards." 


Eleanor Hutchens ruins literary criticism with 
"Pooh; Levels of Meaning and Ultimate Sig- 

Carrie Scandrett pantomimes the voice of 
Frances G. Stukes while Dr. Colder plucks his 

''Upon Our Pulses" 

(Continued from page 9) 


( Written for Prof essor-EmeritusEmmaMayLaney ) 

Your class was not mere time from bell to bell: 
It was a heightened hour of quick surprise 
Our pulses measured as you wove the spell 
That gave us ears and that unsealed our eyes. 
Chaucer charmed us with a laughing tale, 
Milton summoned us with grandeur's call, 
Spenser sang and Keats's nightingale, 
And Eliot with the hidden waterfall. 
Though wonder was about you, you were formed 
Of other elements than magic's fire: 
With militant delight you daily stormed 
Our sleeping wills, commanding our desire 
To wake and stir and reach and stemly strive 
To be — and be entirely alive. 


She says that sorrow is a cross to bear 

And that she will not let herself be sad. 

And sighing she assumes the special air 

Of owning something others never had. 

Just as she prides herself on blue-blood sires. 

The soundness of her orthodox belief. 

The way she trains the servant that she hires. 

So now she is superior in grief. 

No tender ghost of love's remembered tale 

Companions her when firelight shadows stir, 

But a grim figure in a coat of mail 

Sits down to every silent meal with her. 

And still she preens herself that she may be 

Hostess to such imposing company. 


What a wheeling way 
White clouds climb sky 

And roll to the rim of the blue day! 
The air's imperious to-and-fro 
Bends the tender leaf and bough. 
Flowers too frail for touch of hand 
Curve at the wind's command. 
What grace to me, stiff with stress, 
This unsought suppleness! 


As trees print coolness on the heated grass 

In clear sharp images, that lie outlined, 

So beauty lays cool fingers, as I pass. 

Upon the parched places of my mind. 

The honeysuckle hedges' breathing bloom 

That fills a little lane with fragrant May; 

A star that opens in the velvet gloom 

That gathers at the closing of the day; 

The sudden glowing of a gracious thought, 

Akin to wonder, on a lifted face, — 

These cool imprints of beauty have been wrought 

Upon the dullness of the commonplace. 

And beautiful as bloom or thought or sky, — 

A shining name, today, one called me by. 

Editor's Note: Published in April by the Golden Quill Press, Fran- 
cistown. New Hampshire, Upon Our Pulses by Jonef Preston is 
available through the Agnes Scott College Bookstore for $3.34 
(including sales tax and postage). 


This moment has no after, no before: 

Wind-washed and morning-fair. 

It holds me in its everlastingness. 

As I stand here 

Barefoot on live grass. 

Greenness flows upward through my body's length. 

I draw strength 

From earth's power to be . . . 

And after drought and fire and flooding rain. 

To be again. 




Alumnae Answers to Self- Study Prove riwocatiw 

IFTER SEVENTY-FIVE YEARS, how do alumnae judge the 
mpact of Agnes Scott upon their lives? Some answers, 
hough by no means all. are to be found in the question- 
laire completed by alumnae for the College's recent Self 

Knowing the risk of being redundant. I shall sum- 
narize the summary of these questionnaires prepared b\ 
■razer Steele \^ aters 57. an alumna member of one of 
he self-study committees. First, the questionnaire itself 
ivas unsatisfactory: it proved to be difficult to answer 
clearly and conciselv. and alumnae found that attempting 
■;o put themselves and the Colleges influence on them into 
compartments was frustrating. 

But aside from scientific validit\. the questionnaire 
was good because, as Frazer says, "it caused strong 
reactions of some sort in almost all alumnae, it stimu- 
lated real probing thought in most cases, and it left 
ialumnae free to express any feelings or ideas they might 
wish to." 

A pattern did emerge in the answers to the question- 
naire. This is "noblesse oblige."' or the fundamental idea 
that the Agnes Scott education places on an alumna the 
responsibility to take an active part in all her fields of 
endeavor and to maintain standards of excellence. Agnes 
Scott has given the alumna the ability to think in- 
dependentlv. clearly, and deeplv. to reach for basic 
issues and principals, to undertake deep religious coin- 
mitment. to be open-minded and tolerant of other views 
and other people, and to possess standards of lasting 
value to live by, a sense of purpose. 

The underlving thought of those replies indicating an 
unfavorable influence was that the College is too pro- 
vincial and narrow in its attitude, too church-oriented 
in its religious atmosphere, and therefore too stifling in 
its effects on individuals. As Frazer indicates, "an im- 
portant point here is that manv of these negative replies 
came from people who seemed to have picked the wrong 
college .... The other negative replies came from 
alumnae who seemed to have a genuine desire to be 
constructive and to suggest areas in which the college 
might improve. ' 

The reasons alumnae gave for positive influence, in- 
tellectually and in other ways, ranged from excellent 
faculty, hitrh standards demanded and expected, intel- 
ligent student body, small classes, to location in At- 

lanta, freedom to discuss and differ, variety and quality 
of Courses offered, the honor system, independent stud v. 
and the effort to integrate all areas of knowledge into 
a whole. 

Lacks in the College's program and/ or suggestions to 
improve it were both general and specific. Some alumnae 
thought that Agnes Scott is too "sheltered" in its out- 
look, that students need more confrontation with con- 
Iriiversial issues, more freedom of thought and more 
freedom to discuss and discover all ideas. The "ixory 
tower" complaint was often repeated. The lack of a 
genuine search for truth was deplored (several felt that 
the College's attitude implied that it had already found 
all the important truths, and that this smugness and re- 
sulting snobbery were irritating). 

So far. I ha\e been reporting and have refrained frnm 
injecting mv opinion. As we approach concrete sugges- 
tions for improvement. I will say that the word "more" 
is the key one — alumnae want "more of" most phases 
of the Colleges program. Thus, alumnae suggest more 
contact with the outside world: more emphasis on the 
contemporary in art. music, and literature; more time 
for free reading, for inde|iendent and critical work and 
research: more "quiet places:" more counseling and 
vocational guidance. 

Alumnae also want upgrading in the science depart- 
ments, emphasis on current affairs and politics, a course 
in the relatiimship of the arts, more elective?, more in- 
formal contarl between students and facultx'. 

There are suggestions that Bible courses are too 
church-oriented, that social regulations are too rigid, that 
the student body should have more variety (in ])ersonal- 
ities. background, and geography), that some faculty 
members are too limited to teach advanced courses — 
and that the student newspaper could be improved! 

Agnes Scott has influenced alumnae largeh through 
interests stimulated bv certain courses or |ieople. which 
have continued since graduation. Difficulties in distin- 
guishing the College's influences from that of other en- 
vironments were recognized by all alumnae, but all felt 
that Agnes Scott had had a major part in hel]nng them 
to become better people. One alumna said: "The college 
is not much help in giving its students a way to make a 
living but instead gives them a way of living." 



Early ipring rains have made Georgia red cloy mud at the site of the Dana Fine Arts Building. 


Women of Conscience * ■'<ee page lo 



SUMMER 1964 


4 Project Concern in Hong Kong 
Martha Williamson Tiirpin 

10 Women of Conscience in a Changing World 
Alice Jernigan Dowling 

16 Alumnae Week End 

18 Otjr Daily Bread With Indians In Wyoming 
Bet Patterson King 

22 Executive Board 1964-1965 

23 Class News 

Hendrica Baart Schepman 

31 Worthy Notes 

Ann Worthy Johnson '38, Editor 
Mariane Wurst '63, Managing Editor 
John Stuart McKenzie, Design Consultant 


The Agnes ScotI Alumnae Quarterly 
is published jour limes a year (No- 
vember, February, April and July) by 
the Alumnae Association of Agnes 
Scott College at Decatur, Georgia for 
alumnae and friends. Entered as second- 
class matter at the Post Office ol 
Decatur, Georgia, under Act of August 
24, 1912. Subscription price, S2.00 per 


Alumnae Luncheon — 1964 


Front and back cover, pp. 16, 
17, 28 and 31 by Ken Patter- 
son. Frontispiece photo by 
Cornell Capa, New York. 
Pages 4, 6, 8 and 9 by Martha 
JVillianison Turpin. Pages 5 
and 7 by P. C. Lee, Hong 
Kong. Pages 18-21 by Bet Pat- 
terson King. 

here are a growing number of Americans who 
have no idea who to trust on any question on which it 
is important to have an opinion . . . . I think we can 
rebuild our willingness to trust the kind of evidence on 

which this country has been based // is worth 

realizing that our capacity to trust is impaired and in 
danger and is worth very careful cherishing, nurturing, 
and reinvigoration. 

Margaret Mead: The Crisis of Trust 

Eminent anthropologist, ^vriter, and teacher, Margaret IMead spoke at 
\gne9 Scott April 1, 1964 in connection with the 75th Anniversary 
Lecture Series. 

Dr. Jim Turpiii moves m 



iAI yeh, Kai yeh, ka 
yeh ... As we mov 
toward shore in oui 
tiny sampan, childrei 
pop up from thei 
small boat homes waving violently- 
sometimes with both hands — callin; 
out this greeting to Dr. Jim Turpiii 
Kai yeh is the Cantonese for "God 
father." the name which the little one 
of Yaumati typhoon shelter here i: 
Hong Kong spontaneously began call 
ing him soon after our clinic-jun 
was launched in March of 1963. No\ 
that we also live on the boat, the 
call me Kai Ma. The adults smile an< 
wave more sedately. But there is n 
doubt that all of the patients 
"Yauh Oi" (the Chinese name fo 
the boat, which means Brotherl 
Love) feel loved. 

Two and one-half years ago we wer 
a perfectly ordinary suburban famil 
in Coronado, California. Jim had 
busy general practice; we had a nici 
home, two cars, and were buried dee 
in community life. He was even in loc: 
politics as a Coronado City Counci 
man. Being near the border 
Mexico, one day a week we wei 
across into Tijuana to help in a sma 
clinic in a canyon squatter area. 1 
didn't take long for this to beconi 
the highlight of the week, especiall 
for Jim, for here he felt really needei 
Many days he would leave Tijuan 
feeling that if he had failed to 
that day some of the seriously i 
children might not have lived. Ho 
foolish this was, we agreed, to 
something you loved for only one d? 
a week. So it was that we mapped oi 
our plan to do this kind of woi 


aiiis as he develops 

Lcern' in Hong Kong 


every day. We would write to two 
I hundred close friends, hoping to 
! get them to support us as a couple 
by sending $10 a month and allow us 
to work among the refugees in Hong 

We would ha\e laughed heartily at 
anyone who suggested that is one 
year our budget would approach 
$10,000 per month, our staff number 
more than thirty, and our dreams 
grow to include plans for Macao and 
Bhutan. In fact, those first few- 
months it seemed so difficult to reach 
even those small initial goals that 
there were days eyen those seemed 
impossibly high. 

Project Concern is our independent 
medical relief organization. It was 
started to fill our personal desire to 
do medical relief work without the 
organizational strings of government 
or church. This is one of the main 
reasons for its rapid growth. People 
eyervwhere are tired of help for a 
reason, whether it be to sell de- 
mocracy or religion. Our personal 
lives are dedicated to Christ, and it is 
an important motivation to us. If this 
can be absorbed by the people with 
whom we work, we will be very 
pleased. But if they do not absorb it 
simply by knowing us, we feel it must 
not be worthy of sharing — or rather 
that our living interpretation of it is 
insufficient. Project Concern is now 
international both in staff and sup- 

We now have three clinics in the 
British Crown Colony of Hong Kong. 
The first to be opened was inside the 
infamous Walled City of Kowloon 
where approximatelv 50.000 people 

^mmm^^.My t 

liliif nih . 

shining brightly above Chinese sampans, the floating clinic offers aid to 35,000 boat people. 

live in six square blocks of squalor 
and deprivation. Here there is no 
running water or sanitation. Although 
the area is in the center of this 
metropolitan area, the Communists 
claim ownership as it was omitted 
from the lease of 1898. The British 
deny this, but there is no police pro- 
tection or government within the area 
as neither group takes the responsi- 
bility. Families of ten or twelve live 
in one small cubicle which never sees 
the light of day. Many such cubicles 
are rented out to three different 
groups of sleeping people — eight- 

hour periods. Our facilities here are 
\ery poor and cramped but we hope 
to build an adequate clinic during 

The second clinic to be opened was 
aboard a 63-foot Chinese junk which 
we converted into a modern medical 
facility. Here in Yaumati typhoon 
shelter among 35.000 boat people we 
ha\e a clinic any American com- 
munity would be proud of, three ex- 
amining rooms, laboratory, pharma- 
cy, waiting room. Our living quar- 
ters are on the lower floor for the 
(Continued on page 6) 


SUMMER 1964 

'Project Concern' in Hong Kong 

(Continued from page 5) 

six of us, Jim and I, Keith 13, Pate 
11, Scott 6 and Jan 4. Now anchored 
alongside is a "twin," an auxiliary 
clinic adding X-ray. two modern 
dental rooms, eye, ear, nose, and 
throat services and storage facilities. 
This auxiliary clinic was a gift of 
Kowloon Rotary- Club West. Their 
interest was one of the most impor- 
tant steps along the way, for they 
represent a group of Chinese busi- 
nessmen who liked the way the clinics 
were handled and wanted to be a part 
of this effort. Beside this is our tiny 
generator boat, and soon to be com- 
pleted is a water ambulance given by 
the officers and men of the U.S. Car- 
rier Hancock during its week in port 

'] he third and newest clinic is 
among the hillside squatters in Jor- 
dan Valley. Now it is being conducted 
in a crumbling old cemetery office, 
but plaris have been drawn to recon- 
struct this small building into an 

adequate clinic. Into this area many 
of the new refugee families come 
with sheets of tin and cardboard to 
construct a cheap shelter. 

It is very difficult to write about 
my personal experiences here, for the 
glamor, excitement and achievement 
seems to be in the story of Jims day 
with the patients who need him, and 
with the organization as it grows. 
My day is fdling in the gaps where I 
can. helping behind the scenes in the 
clinic only enough to steal a small 
piece of the fun. but most of all with 
our children. Much of my time is 
spent with visitors, for the ones who 
have actually been here and seen the 
work are by far the most enthusiastic 
helpers when they have returned 
home. To be perfectly honest, I feel 
that we are living in the best of two 
worlds. We still have the pleasures 
of stimulating friendships, a full and 
exciting social whirl but added to 
this a wonderful fellowship with peo- 

The Turpin family (from left to right), Pate, Keith (standing), Scott, Jim, 
Martha and Jan, has been in Hong Kong for more than two years. 

pie who because of chance circur |i 
stances are in great need of a hel 
we can give. How very, very stranj fcJ 
our lives must seem to them as the l 
watch us come and go in an evi||i 
changing wardrobe, as they peep ii 
to our portholes to glimpse the so 
cushioned chairs, beds with ma 
tresses, stove without a fire, a roo: 
for cooking which is larger than the 
entire home. 

I am writing downstairs in ot 
apartment. Here the portholes are tof 
high to really watch all that is goin 
on around me unless I am standin 
at one — as when I watch for th 
sampan bringing the children horn 
from school, or later, watching Sco 
and Jan play on the floats with th 
children who are "parked" all aroun 
waiting for their families who ar 
on waiting boats. Some of them ai 
seeing the doctors. Others are hopin 
to earn a few cents skulling visitoi 
back and forth from Yauh Oi. 

Upstairs on the clinic deck, it is 
different story — the windows ar 
large and the life of Yaumati presse 
in all around us. There is a constar 
stream of majestic fishing junks 
working cargo junks, walla wall 
(water taxis) and tiny sampans, thif 
many movable homes of the harboi 
along the water "street" in front o 
us named Central Avenue. About fiv 
times a day one of the tour boat 
passes through, loaded with we 
dressed tourists snapping pictures on 
after anotlier. This is the only glimps 
many of our people have of westerr 
ers. Of course the clinic floor i 
thronged with patients waiting fo 
the doctors, for lab work, or med: 
cine but if we press through we cai 
get to the roof, a lovely fenced opei 
space where the staff eats lunch, th' 
children play, where parties an 
movies are held for the children o 
Yaumati and where our dog lives 
From this vantage point one cai 
watch the life around him easily. Ii 
the distance is the skyline of Hon; 
Kong itself, at night as magnificen 
as San Francisco is from Sausalito 

A few nights ago I felt a bit cross 
impatient with the routine of bed 
time. I called to Jim to do the fina 
checking of teeth, faces, etc. and thei 

lade my way to the roof. Immedi- 
tely my eyes fastened on one of the 
lany sampans anchored nearby, 
liere was no reason for choosing 
lis particular one — they are all very 
luch alike. This mother was also 
usy about the routine of bedtime, 
oing many of the same things I do: 
leaning faces, putting up the few 
ishes, and making room for the 
jmily to stretch out on the small 
ard floor. One little boy was hunched 
ver the lantern doing a few charac- 
;rs; a little girl was sitting out over 
he water using the "toilet." It did not 
ake many minutes for the mood of im- 
atience with my own little crew to 
ilip completely away, and in its place 
come a deep feeling for the throb- 
iing aliveness around me. It was an 
xhilaration far more exciting than 
aat which comes from a new dress, 
rom the success of your child in 
ompetition or from a new signed 
ontract at work. 
The two older boys are busy in a 
ood British secondary school. King 
aeorge V. They leave of course in a 

sampan, and on shore take a bus. 
They have adjusted well to the 
rigorous discipline and hard-hitting 
basic instruction in the school. At 13 
and 11 they are both taking French, 
Latin, physics, chemistry, and biology 
as well as English, history and math. 
They have good friends from all 
over the world, for Hong Kong is 
quite a cosmopolitan city of almost 
4.000,000. They have soccer rather 
than football, cricket rather than 
baseball, books rather than television. 
My only complaint is that they do 
not teach Chinese in the schools 
even as an elective, since most of the 
families are in the government serv- 
ice and do not plan to be in Hong 
Kong that long. Keith is extremely 
interested in science and has a lab 
on the roof. Pate has his own little 
sampan and enjoys skulling around 
with the nearby children. They are 
learning Cantonese in bits and 

Scott is in a British primary school 
which also has a serious strict pro- 
gram. He enjoys life aboard the boat 

n old women's face shows that neither compassion nor laughter know any language barrier: 

Dr. Jim chats with some young friends. 

more than any of the children, spend- 
ing hours writing the Chinese charac- 
ters on the pill envelopes given out 
in the pharmacy, stamping cards, and 
helping in many ways. Jan is attend- 
ing a Cantonese kindergarten, and 
will be the only one in the family who 
learns the language easily. 

Lunchtime on the roof of the boat 
is one of the highlights of the day. 
An excellent Chinese cook prepares 
typical Chinese food, and of course 
we use chopsticks. Our staff is 
divided into two teams, alternating 
days on the boat. One team divides 
its time with mornings in the Walled 
City and afternoons in Jordan Valley. 
Each team has five doctors (one fully 
registered and four refugee doctors 
who are in the long struggle to ob- 
tain licenses in Hong Kong), a nurse, 
lab technician, pharmacist and two 
registrars. There are also two den- 
tists, an X-ray technician and radiol- 

'Project Concern' in Hong Kong 

(Continued from page 7) 

ogist, and ear, nose, and throat spe- 
cialist, and two volunteer ophthalmol- 
ogists. Any one of these could be 
the subject of a complete article. Al- 
most every one has left China with 
great difficulty. Many have husbands, 
wives, parents, brothers and sisters 
still in China and unable to leave. 
They have lived through Japanese 
occupation I many fleeing for years 
in front of the army ) , the Communist 
take-over, and harrowing escape. Now 
they face the fact that their training 
is not recognized here. Skilled sur- 
geons, specialists in all fields work for 
less than $fOO U.S. per month while 
they study their medicine again in 
English. They must pass rigorous 
tests for the privilege of further study 
in foreign hospitals. Jim screens them 
carefullv. has regular teaching ses- 
sions with them, and discusses each 
day any questions that arise. When 
hiring a new staff member he has 
two equally important requirements, 
that thev are professionally com- 
petent, and that they genuinely care 
for the people they serve. And they 
do. It is not at all uncommon to see 
one of them scoop a dirty little tod- 
dler up for a quick squeeze as they 
pass down the hall. But here on 
the roof at lunch we laugh, tease 
and enjoy one another — Ameri- 
cans, Canadians, British, Australians, 
Dutch. Chinese and Malayan, united 
by the bond of "concern." 

Hong Kong is indeed a fascinating, 
heart-breaking city. The refugees con- 
tinue to pour in, although one cannot 
see them doing so or know an exact 
count except perhaps by the general 
swelling population. There are still 
thousands sleeping in the streets. In 
spite of the British government's 
vigorous program of resettlement 
housing the yearly increase in popu- 
lation is still 60,000 more than thev 
are able to handle. This means that 
instead of being eased by all of the 
efforts, the problem continues to 
grow. Wages are low, schools are in- 
adequate and expensive; so what 
hope have the children of today for 
somethina; better for their own fam- 

ilies in years to come? It is not 
honest to blame them for lack of 
effort or intelligence. 

One of our most surprising dis- 
coveries has been that there is as 
much anxiety-caused illness among 
these unfortunate people as there is 
in suburbia. When Jim was touring 
the U.S. last winter he made a big 
joke about the 1,000 cases of antacid 
that had been sent to him, saying 
"We have enough antacid for all of 
Asia for five years." Already he has 
used almost half of it treating the 
large numbers of ulcers. Somehow 
we rationalize that these people are 
hardened to their circumstances. 
Many of us feel that because they 
are unable to have chairs, beds, toys, 
meat — that they don't want these 
things and don't care that their chil- 
dren must work rather than go to 
school. This simply is not true. Each 
individual one of them is as desper- 
ately concerned about the life he and 
his family lives as vou and I are. 

These are warm feeling, loving 
people. Two days before Christmas 
one sampan family came down into 
our apartment to visit us. This hap- 
pened to be a family we like par- 
ticularly. They skull us back and 
forth to shore regularly, and our 
children play with theirs daily. They 
brought us cards, fruit, candy — and 
two live chickens in a paper sack. 
These were not something they had 
picked up carelessly at a store for a 
Christmas gift. These chickens had 
been raised in a small box wired to 
the back of the sampan. They had 
been carefully tended, fed and 
watered for months, and represented 
this family s opportunity to have two 
meals with meat rather than the regu- 
lar rice and cabbage with an oc- 
casional small fish. I tried to think 
of some gift our family might make 
which would be an equal sacrifice to 
us — and could not. No matter what it 
might be, we would always find a 
way to replace it with what we wanted 
rather than do without. 

Hong Kong is deeply entrenched 
in a struggle to survive a critical water 

shortage during this winter. As if tl; 
other problems were not enougl 
those refugees crowded into the r 
settlement areas and squatter are? 
must stand in lines one-fourth of 
mile long for two buckets of waterH 
and have an opportunity to do th: 
for only four hours every other da' 
Those fortunate enough to have rur 
ning water at home find water i 
the tap for three hours every fourti 
day, and must store all that is needel 
for the ensuing four days. This is m 
only an additional hardship to th 
poorer people, but uses up valuabli 
time from home labor and possibl 

Malnutrition, more specificall! 
hypo-vitaminosis is the most prevaler 
disease in all three of our clinic area: 
Among the other aU-too-common dii 
eases are: intestinal parasites, tubei 
culosis (Potts disease and spine df 
formities caused by tuberculosis an 
common ) , skin diseases, especialll 
impetigo, pneumonia due to almo; 
constant exposure and cholera. Ther 
has been no resistance at all to thi 
western medicine. The very first da 
the doors of Yaun Oi were ope 
there were 80 patients, and the ne? 
day 171. The new dental clinic ha 
been a different story. The care i 
badly needed — but the people are nc 
vet used to the forbidding" equipment 

It is thrilling for us to watch th'l 
whole program — which seemed a 
first to be a wild scheme — take oi 
real soundness and value. I am ver 
proud that for an average month! 
expenditure of $7,291 a staff whicl 
has grown from eight to thirty-fiv 
treats an average patient load whicl 
has grown from 150 to 350 a da) 
This expenditure includes all lal 
work, medication, complete record 
and referrals, a feeding program o> I 
milk and wafers, and a family couni 
seling service. I feel that this is aii 
amazing return for that amount o 
money, since it took half that mucl 
to run Jim's thriving general practici 
office with a staff of three, no medii 
cations (except injections and treat 
ments of course) and a daily patien 
load of about twenty. A charge of 50 
HK is made for each patient, whicl 
amounts to less than 9^ U.S. 


\\ e fully expected the rewards of 

■a>ure in our work. We expected 
aii\ advantages for our children in 

li a life as this. But there have 

■in many unexpected rewards, such 

public honors and acclaim. 

Ill s award by the Junior Chamber 

('omniarce as one of the Ten Out- 
aiiding Young Men of 1962 gave a 
■Ipful boost to the project when it 
■(■(led believability. Not the least of 
ese rewards to me is being invited 

share something of our plan with 

The growth of our work has come 
irough individuals who care. So far 
e have no professional promotion, 
nd have counted on our newsletters 
ad words of friends to spread the 
ews of the work. Rotary. Jaycees 
nd Active 20-30 have played a large 
art in our support. Committees in 
;n cities work hard presenting pro- 
rams and conducting campaigns. 

It is genuine fun to see individuals 
1 different parts of the world "take 
re " and accomplish almost impossi- 
ile tasks. One woman in San Diego 
as sinsle handedlv organized a drug 

The Turpins lunch on the roof of their boat with (I to r) the Vice-Presi(dent of the Hong Kong 
Jaycees, the PresicJent of the New Zealand Jaycees and the New Zealand Trade Commissioner. 

A tiny patient receives attention. 

A typical home within the walled city. 

collection and sorting operation that 
has already sent to us more than 
$100,000 worth of drugs. One single 
Australian Javcee who became in- 
terested while here for the Interna- 
tional Convention last year went back 
home to sell his own club, then his 
entire state, and finallv this fall the 
National Convention on adopting 
Project Concern. One Atlanta busi- 
nessman has adopted the policy of 
replacing his many gifts to customers 
and salesmen bv gifts to Project 

All of the plans for the future de- 
pend entirely on such people as these. 
Project Concern could be proud to 
remain as it is in Hong Kong. But 
we believe now that it will grow 
rapidly and spread widelv, this year 
to Macao and the small Himalayan 
country of Bhutan, and next year to 
other southeastern Asian countries. 
We believe this, because the whole 
world seems filled with people who 
are looking for some way to help 
those who need it directly. We are 
giving them one avenue they may 
choose for this help. 


of Conscience 

in a Changing 



ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Alice was the Alumnae Speaker in the 
75th Anniversary Lecture Series. Her husband, Walter Dowling, 
has recently retired from a long career in Foreign Service— 
his last post was Ambassador to West Germany. In Vienna, 
in Korea, in Germany, wherever they have been, Alice has 
devoted her time to women and children's organizations. 

I HOUGH goodness without 
knowledge is weak 
and feeble; yet knowl- 
edge without goodness 
is dangerous; both 
united form the noblest character and 
lay the surest foundation of useful- 
ness to mankind." 

The words are those of John 
Phillips, who founded one of the 
great New England schools almost 
200 years ago, and I think he would 
have been proud to have them used 
to define the spirit of this Southern 
college whose 7.5th year we are cele- 

I am grateful for your invitation 
to return to Agnes Scott as the 
Alumna Speaker on this very special 

and joyful anniversary, for 1 have 
never before been able to participate 
in one of the great occasions of the 
college. Those of us who live "far 
from the reach of the sheltering 
arms" feel a greater dependence, I 
think, on the lessons we learned at 
Agnes Scott than do those who live 
at home, in the comfort and security 
of familiar ways and a familiar 
language. 1 have been thankful for 
many years, in many countries, that 
ours is a college where goodness and 
character and usefulness to mankind 
are prized as highly as knowledge. 

I share, with most American 
women who live and work abroad, 
the feeling so spontaneously ex- 
pressed by a young friend of mine. 

the wife of an Army sergeant, who 
was about to join her husband in 
Europe. As she and her children 
were waiting at their port of em- 
barkation to board the ship for 
Bremerhaven, she could scarcely con- 
trol her excitement. Her neighbor in 
the line, who obviously did not share 
her enthusiasm for going so far 
away from home, looked at her 
scornfully and said: "Anybody 
would think you were going to 
Heaven."' And my friend replied. 
"Honey, 1 knoiv I'm going to 
Heaven, but I never thought I'd get 
to Germany!" In other words, all 
this and Heaven too. 

Returning to the college after 
thirty-four years has made me acutely 



onscious of the passing of the years 
nd the changes they have brought, 
ere at Agnes Scott as well as in 
be world beyond these gates. At the 
ime of my graduation in 1930, we 
Americans were living in compara- 
ive isolation, preoccupied with the 
roblems of the depression, and al- 
nost wholly unconcerned with the 
ffairs of the rest of the world. Now 
n 1964, the simple fact is that there 
re no strangers left on earth, and 
lur involvement in mankind is total, 
icience has annihilated space, opened 
ip instant communication, and made 
he world a single neighborhood. In 
liarbara Wards words, '"Everything 
is exploding — population, knowledge, 
lommunications, resources, cities, 
;pace itself."' Thanks to television 
ind the press, the ordinarv citizen, 
lere and in other lands, is far better 
informed about the world scene than 
le was thirty years ago about his own 
country. In very recent years, more 
han fifty new nations have come into 
)eing, and despite their diverse 
•haracter and size, they have one 
juality in common — the determina- 
ion to establish and maintain their 
national identities, and to make use 
n their own ways of the tools and 
echniques and ideas which the 
wentieth century provides. The na- 
ions of Western Europe, long di- 
/ided, as President Kennedy once 
said, "by feuds more bitter than any 
Afhich existed among our thirteen 
colonies, are joining together, seek- 
ng as our forefathers sought, to find 
freedom in diversity and unity in 
strength." Distances have diminished 
10 the point where they have little 
neaning, and inter-relationships of 
3very kind are so steadily and ob- 
i^iouslv increasing that no man and 
no nation is, or indeed can be. an 
island entire of itself. We can no 
onger choose whether we shall live 
;ogether, but rather how we shall live 
;ogether in this world which has so 
suddenly become a neighborhood. 

No one group has been more af- 
fected by this whirlwind of change 
;han the women of the world who 
stand at the very center of "the revo- 
lution of rising expectations." In 
countries where for centuries they 
lave been held to a subservient role, 
hey are emerging to play a larger 

part in national life. Girls and women 
have new or larger opportunities for 
education, and with education has 
come not only knowledge but a de- 
gree of independence previously de- 
nied them. Their changed status in 
the field of political rights is phe- 
nomenal. Of the 113 nations which 
are members of the United Nations, 
ninety-seven give women full and 
equal rights. In only eight countries 
of the world do they have no rights 
at all; and even in the most conserva- 
tive Moslem nations, the winds of 
change are stirring. Women every- 
where are now aware that a better 
life is possible for them and for their 
children; they no longer need think 
of themselves as second-class citizens. 

Women's Education 

Of all the forces working to 
change the lives of women around the 
world, there is no doubt that educa- 
tion is the factor which is making 
the greatest difference. Even here at 
home, education is a subject of de- 
bate, and we are deeply concerned 
for its direct bearing on the urgent 
problems of juvenile delinquency, 
unemployment among the young, and 
the need for a new order of skills in 
a changing world. One is not sur- 
prised, therefore, at the emphasis 
now placed on education in the de- 
veloping countries. In Saudi Arabia, 
for example, where progress, more 
than in most countries, must reckon 
with the tradition of centuries, girls 
may now attend school. This seems 
commonplace to us. but in that coun- 
try it has only been true since 1961. 

In Northern Rhodesia, forty-one 
women — the fortunate ones out of 
500 applicants — are taking a six- 
months course at the Ecumenical 
Center which is supported by the 
World Council of Churches. These 
women, whose husbands are the new 
governmental leaders, come from 
their villages to learn the wavs and 
skills which will make them helpful 
and valuable to their husbands in 
their new lives of responsibility — 
how to set the table, furnish a room, 
care for children, make a speech, 
draw up a will, learn the principles 
of government, discuss problems and 
conflicts. By your standards, this 

would not be considered education, 
but for them it is changing the 
world. I know; I have seen them in 
Bonn, these women from the Came- 
roons and Gabon and Chad, home- 
sick for the sunshine and their 
families and their familiar foods, per- 
plexed by the complicated ways of 
Western life and etiquette, troubled 
because they feel inadequate, and 
fearful that their husbands might be 
ashamed of them — but always des- 
perately anxious to learn. 

Three years ago in the once arid 
valley of Jericho I visited with my 
son a farm school for Arab orphan 
boys, which was established by one 
of the most remarkable men I ever 
knew, Musa el Alami, an Arab refu- 
gee himself, who quite literally made 
the desert blossom like a rose. He 
told me that after the first classes of 
boys had left the school and were 
established in the new lives he had 
made possible for them, they began 
to return, one by one, saying that 
something was wrong. TTiere were no 
girls who were educated as they 
were, and therefore they could find 
no suitable wives. I imagine you have 
guessed the solution; their benefac- 
tor somehow found the means to 
open a school for girls as well. 

When the United States opened a' 
legation in Yemen a few years ago, 
the only schools were the ones where 
boys were taught the Koran. The wife 
of our representative there, like so 
many American women around the 
world, organized classes at home for 
her own children and those of her 
friends in the diplomatic corps. It 
was not long before a Yemini of- 
ficial came and begged her to take 
his two daughters into the school. 
"Unless our children, especially our 
girls," he said, "can be assured a 
modern education, our country has 
no future. We know that the Middle 
Eastern countries which have pro- 
gressed in the last fifty years are 
those where schools have been estab- 
lished and where eventually women 
have been allowed to learn as well as 

Officials from the newly independ- 
ent nations who have visited more 
developed countries are impressed by 
the achievements of the women. They 



Women of 


are quick to realize that a capable, 
educated female population is a 
characteristic of development: there- 
fore they want it at home. I suppose 
one might almost sa\ it is a status 

These changes are taking place 
over a vast area, on every continent 
and in many countries. The rate of 
change varies from one countrv to 
another and from one region to 
another, depending on history, reli- 
gion, tradition, local attitudes: on 
whether the area is rural or urban, 
isolated or open to outside influences. 
But everywhere you will find the 
pioneers: the educators, doctors, 
social workers, leaders of women's 
organizations who ha\e the courage 
to go on ahead and open the doors. 
These are the women of conscience, 
those who. like Eleanor Roosevelt, 
would "rather light a candle than 
curse the darkness." 

In Israel, there is Golda Meir. the 
Foreign Minister, the only woman 
in the Western world to reach such 
political eminence, but so plain, so 
strong, so old-fashioned, like a 
woman of the Bible. In Egypt. Dr. 
Abou Zeid. the United Arab Re- 
public's Minister of Social Affairs, is 
pressing a vigorous enlightenment 
campaign, through new laws and 
education, against polygamy, juvenile 
delinquency, and primitive supersti- 
tion in the field of medicine. 

During the sixteen years since 
India won its independence, the 
country's women have progressed 
from second-class citizens to leaders 
in the government. There are many 
women in the state and federal legis- 
lative bodies, and a woman holds the 
high post of Deputy Speaker of the 
Federal Parliament. A woman is 
Chief Minister of the largest Indian 
state, and two other states have 
women governors. Indian women 
never had an organized feminist or 
suffragette movement: instead, they 
fought beside the men for national 
freedom, and found their own liberty 
during the struggle. In recognition 
of their battle, they automaticallv 
came into their own. 

In the past generation, Latin 
American women in increasing num- 
bers have entered the universities 
and advanced steadily in such pro- 
fessions as the law, teaching, medi- 
cine, architecture. social work, 
pharmacy — and. on the whole, they 
encounter less discrimination than do 
women in these professions in the 
Lnited States. One of these is Sen- 
hora Ana Figueroa of Chile, the As- 
sistant Director General of the In- 
ternational Labour Office in Geneva. 
She might have been speaking for 
all women of conscience everywhere 
when she said not long ago: "I know 
it is a difficult task to see this world 
as it is and to love it as it is. To help 
its people calls for courage and con- 
viction. But I would rather live a 
short life full of effort and endless 
concern than to reach old age with 
empty hands." 

Dr. Helen Kim 

For these women, and the thou- 
sands of others like them whose 
names we may never hear, con- 
science is not a code of denial or a 
negative thing. It is a vital and 
positive force, guiding them when in 
doubt, leading them in the darkness, 
forcing their voices to be raised 
against injustice and. above all. com- 
mitting them to the course which is 

It is not easy for American women 
to comprehend the difficulties which 
women in many other countries face 
when they attempt to raise money 
for a school, or wage a battle against 
corruption, or urge the passage of a 
law which will protect their children. 
We have been doing these things for 
so many jears. with such astonishing 

But let me try to tell you what life 
has been like, until a few decades 
ago. for a woman in Korea. In the 
Korean society, the supreme con- 
cern is the preservation and develop- 
ment of the family, achieved bv pay- 
ing tribute to the ancestors, by en- 
larging the family property, and 
above all, by begetting male heirs. 
The patriarch had absolute power 
over each and every member of the 
family and demanded and received 
absolute obedience. Marriages were 
arranged, and men and women were 

socially isolated from each other. 
Even today, in the Presbyterian 
Church in Chonju, where Sophie 
Montgomery Crane's ('40 1 husband 
Paul is an elder, men and women 
still enter the church bv separate 
doors, and only recently, following 
the bold example of the University 
president, who was educated in the 
United States, have a few husbands 
and wives begun to sit together dur- 
ing the service. Family relationships 
are based not on equality but on the 
order of the status of every member 
of the family — children subordinate 
to parents, wife to husband and 
parents-in-law, younger children to 
the older ones, girl child to male 
child. In the Children's Relief Hos- 
pital in Seoul we alwavs cared for a 
great number of abandoned babies, 
but there was seldom a male child 
among them, for a Korean mother 
would have to be in very dire straits 
indeed before she would give up a 

Some of these attitudes began to 
change under the influence of the 
missionaries at the end of the last 
century, but progress was slow until 
the devastation of the. war brought 
social upheaval in its wake. In the 
cities life is different now. but in the 
rural areas change comes slowly. 

But at almost the same time Agnes 
Scott was founded, there opened in 
Seoul a tiny mission school for girls 
— a bold venture indeed in Korea 
seventy-eight years ago. In three 
quarters of a century this school has 
grown into a great women's univer- 
sity with a student body of 8000. 
Much of its financial support has 
come from the Methodist Board of 
Missions, but otherwise Ewha Uni- 
versity is almost entirely the creation 
of one great Christian woman, Dr. 
Helen Kim. 

I wish I could make you see the 
tiny determined figure of this young 
Korean girl, thirsting for knowledge 
and burning with the patriotism and 
resentment all Koreans felt early in 
this century under the domination of 
the Japanese. One of her teachers 
wrote: "One could not guide such a 
spirit without growing oneself." In 
order to enroll at Ewha as a college 
student, she was forced to make the 



painful choice between absolute 
obedience to her father, who bitterly 
opposed higher education for women, 
and the new way of following one's 
conscience which the missionaries 
had been teaching. Her conscience 
won — with a great deal of help from 
her mother — and in 1915 she was the 
sole member of the fifth graduating 
class of Ewha, confronted by the 
very feminine problem of how to buy 
a pair of Western shoes to replace 
the traditional Korean slippers with 
upturned toes which were not con- 
sidered appropriate with cap and 
gown. She mortgaged a full month's 
salary as a teacher to buy a second- 
hand pair of high laced boots — old 
fashioned even for those days, she 
remembers wryly. But her most vivid 
memory of that graduation day was 
her consciousness of new dignity, 
and the pride she felt in the status 
women were gaining in Korea — for 
by then she was the fifth woman to 
graduate from college in her country. 

Her missionary friends were well 
aware of her promise, and soon sent 
her to the United States, to study at 
Ohio Wesleyan. She was impatient 
at having to enroll as a sophomore, 
because she was driven always by 
the thought of the urgent work she 
had left at home and by the convic- 
tion that every minute was precious 
and must count for some gain in 
knowledge or experience. I was 
amused to hear that when she was 
elected to Phi Beta Kappa in her jun- 
ior year, she had no idea what it was! 

Her whole life has been devoted 
to the education and advancement of 
Korean women, and from Ewha L ni- 
versity have come most of the 
women doctors and educators and 
social workers and Y.W.C.A. and 
Girl Scout leaders in Korea. She has 
found time to establish and guide the 
Y.W.C.A., to represent her country 
for twelve years as an observer at 
the United Nations, and to participate 
in innumerable international con- 
ferences, so that her name is known 
and respected throughout Asia, and 
indeed, the world. 

Now she is writing a column in the 
English language newspaper which 
she helped establish some years ago. 
Sophie Crane has just sent me a 
clipping of the column which de- 

scribes the opening in Seoul of a 
grand new building for a women's 
center — "something unheard of be- 
fore in the history of our nation," 
she writes — I realized anew how 
truly we have become a single 
neighborhood when on the back of 
that clipping I saw a news story from 
Atlanta. Here at home we have be- 
come quite accustomed now to read- 
ing in our own headlines about Sai- 
gon and Nicosia and Zanzibar, but 
we sometimes forget that what hap- 
pens in Atlanta may be on the front 
page of the Korea Times the next 

German Women 

Half the world away from Korea 
in another divided country, German 
women after the war were confronted 
by different but equally perplexing 
problems. By the end of the 19th 
century a small but vigorous group 
of women had already given strong 
impetus to the women's movement in 
Germany. They had gained access to 
the universities, entered the intel- 
lectual professions, and in 1918 won 
the right to vote. Their influence 
soon became evident in the Reichstag, 
especially in the area of social policy 
and legislation for family welfare 
and education. From the very begin- 
ning there was a multiplicity of or- 
ganizations — teachers' associations, 
religious and political clubs, labor 
union groups, housewives' associa- 
tions. Those early years were a 
period of great vitality and idealism 
and almost revolutionary energy. 

All this ended abruptly in 1933, 
with the advent of National Social- 
ism. Hitler believed that a woman's 
place was in the home and not in 
public life. Women were sent back to 
their household tasks and as a con- 
sequence divorced from politics and 
constructive action. Thus it came 
about that after the defeat of Ger- 
many in 1945. the whole structure of 
women's activity, like most things in 
that utterly devastated country, had 
to be painfully rebuilt. 

It required what Winston Churchill 
called "an act of faith" to reverse 
the old attitudes of bitterness and dis- 
trust at the end of the war. But some- 
how a miracle happened, and slowly, 
and sometimes painfully, we dis- 

covered that we were no longer 
enemies, but nations groping their 
way toward a partnership which 
would soon be based on common in- 
terests, a growing sense of mutual 
respect, and an increasing compre- 
hension of each other's problems. I 
should like to say most emphatically 
that we have no stronger partners in 
the Atlantic Alliance than the Ger- 
man people. "A faithful friend is a 
strong defense, and he that hath 
found such a friend hath found a 
treasure." There is a new Germany 
which is our faithful friend and our 
strong defense. 

In those early postwar years we 
were fortunate to have as the wife of 
the American High Commissioner in 
Germany a woman of great intel- 
ligence and character, Mrs. John J. 
McClov. German women will always 
remember the encouragement she 
gave them during those bleak and 
bitter years. The women's organiza- 
tions, like their individual members, 
were impoverished, and there were 
no funds for publications or for 
participation in international con- 
ferences. Even communication was 
difficult, because of the artificial divi- 
sion of the country into occupation 
zones. Most women were bearing ex- 
hausting family burdens as bread- 
winners, because their husbands had 
been killed or disabled or were still 
prisoners of war. and they had little 
time or strength for anything else, 
while the younger women, who since 
1933 had been completely cut off 
from women's activities, had de- 
veloped no feeling of civic respon- 
sibility. Yet a compelling sense of 
obligation soon brought together 
women of divergent political thought 
from all walks of life in a common 
effort to rebuild the family, the com- 
munity, and the state. 

One of the great women of that 
time was Luise Schroeder, the dedi- 
cated Socialist who was the acting 
mayor of Berlin from 1947 to 1948. 
probably the most difficult time in 
the life of that hard-pressed city. The 
Berliners adored her. and when she 
died in 1957 she was given a state 
funeral, the first time such an honor 
had been paid to a German woman. 

Since World War II Germany has 



Women of 


had only two presidents, and both 
were married to women of great 
compassion and understanding. The 
first, Frau Elly Heuss, worked all her 
life to further the concept of religious 
and civic obligation in which she 
believed so deeply, especially where 
mothers and children were con- 
cerned. Her successor. Frau Wilhel- 
mine Luebke, trained as a teacher 
and fluent in five languages, has a 
deep concern for the welfare of the 
aged. She has travelled with her hus- 
band through Asia and Africa and 
Latin America and has won count- 
less friends for her country through 
her simplicity of manner and her 
warm interest in human beings. 

Among the women journalists of 
the world, a German woman stands 
in the first rank. She is Countess 
Marion Doenhoff. the leading col- 
umnist of Die Zeit. In the last winter 
of the war she rode 500 miles on her 
horse over the icy roads from her 
home in East Prussia to Hamburg to 
escape the Russian occupation. Smith 
College gave her an honorary degree 
in 1962 in recognition of her profes- 
sional excellence, and in German life 
she has won her place as a woman of 
conscience and conviction. She does 
not know the meaning of com- 
promise, and for her the two cardinal 
sins, either in governments or in- 
dividuals, are immobility and dis- 

It is interesting to me that, while 
the average married woman in Ger- 
manv has been far less active in 
public life than her American coun- 
terpart, ten percent of the deputies 
in the Bundestag and the Laender 
parliaments are women. Here in the 
I_ nited States we have a population 
of 90 million females, yet only two 
women serve in the Senate, and only 
nineteen women in the 435 seat 
House of Representatives. German 
women are proud, too. that one of 
their number serves in the Cabinet 
as Minister of Health. 

I have a German friend who re- 
tires next month from public life 
after a long career devoted to govern- 

ment and to women's work on the 
international level. When I asked her 
how a woman could accomplish what 
she has done, she replied, "She must 
have the stresigth to undertake what 
is worth changing and the judgment 
not to attempt what cannot be 
changed, and she must pray for the 
wisdom to distinguish between the 

All of these women, it seems to 
me, have contributed something very 
essential to postwar German life — 
something which it urgently needs: 
respect for the individual, and the 
lively conviction that the only pur- 
pose of all political activity, from 
foreign and defense policy to finan- 
cial and budgetary questions, is to 
serve the welfare of the individual 

America's Representatives 

I cannot bring this long discussion 
to a close without speaking of the 
women who represent you abroad. I 
believe you would be proud of the 
American women in Foreign Service 
and military posts around the world. 

American women seem determined, 
wherever they go, to leave the place 
a little better than they found it. 
Mrs. Katie Louchheim, the remark- 
able woman who is Deputy Assistant 
Secretary of State for Community 
Advisory Services, puts it in a very 
homely way: "Like thoughtful 
guests, they help quietly with the 
host country's housework, but at the 
same time they are careful not to try 
to move the national furniture around 
unless asked to do so." 

Their first task, of course, is to 
summon the ingenuity and courage 
and imagination which bring home 
and family into warm, familiar focus 
in a dusty African village or a great 
European capital. A little girl I know 
explained very carefullv to a friend 
soon after her familv arrived at their 
new post in Germany: "Oh, we have 
a home. We just don't have a house 
to put it in yet." 

Having a house to put it in is ver}' 
important, but almost as soon as the 
trunks are unpacked and the children 
settled in a new school, the American 
woman overseas looks around to see 
where and how she can be most use- 
ful in her new community. Women's 

volunteer service is an idea whichi 
for a number of complex economic 
and sociological reasons was until 
recently little known outside thei 
Western world. The spreading of thisi 
concept by example is an invaluable 
gift which Americans can and do 
bring to their sisters overseas. 

It was a Frenchman who wrote in 
genuine astonishment after a visit to 
America more than a century ago 
"An American may conceive of some 
need that is not being met. What does 
he do? He goes across the street and 
discusses it with his neighbor. A 
committee begins functioning on be 
half of that need, and all this is 
done by private citizens on their own 
initiative." Transplanted abroad, 
American women are giving new 
meaning to this tradition. In a for- 
eign land the urge to do something 
which needs doing must be carefully 
controlled and exercised with great 
tact. Where local organizations like 
the Y.W.C.A. and the Red Cross al- 
ready exist, women work through 
them with their new friends. Where 
there is no organized welfare pro- 
gram, they find it wise to proceed 
very slowly and cautiously, to avoid 
giving olfense. 

There is scarcely a country in the 
world where your compatriots are 
not busy in hospitals, orphanages, 
schools for the handicapped and 
homes for the aged. In many places 
they are sharing their strength and 
skills. I am thinking of the four 
community centers in Ecuador, 
staffed almost entirely by American 
volunteers who teach home econom- 
ics, nursing and child care, home 
industry, and civics. There is the 
Foreign Service wife in Laos who 
happens to be a doctor; she visits 
the sick in remote villages and works 
in the pediatrics ward of a Vientiane 
hospital. One American is doing 
volunteer psychiatric work in Liberia 
and training local nurses to carry on 
after her husband's tour of dutv 
comes to an end. A young friend of 
mine in Korea taught English com- 
position at Ewha in the morning, 
read proof on the Korea Times in 
the afternoon, and still found time 
to learn to speak Korean, one of the 
most difficult of languages. During 
last year's disastrous floods in Paki- 



in, two wives from the United 
ates Consulate in Dacca set out in 

small boat to distribute food, 
aeir boat capsized during a sudden 
id violent storm, but the women 
anaged to get to an island where 
ey lived on mangoes for five days 
biore being rescued by a helicopter. 
s soon as another boat could be 
und. they were out distributing 
lod again. 

Those who have special gifts serve 
eir country in a very special way 
rough the expression of their 
lents. In Seoul an Embassy wife 
is taught sculpture for manv vears 

one of the universities, and another 

playing the French horn in the 
;oul Symphony Orchestra. In the 
aghdad Symphonv the second 
olinist is an American woman, 
irginia Pleasants of our Embassy 
1 Bonn is known throughout Europe 
i a harpsichordist of the first rank, 
id Sheila Isham. during her hus- 
ind's assignment in Hong Kong, is 
aching a class in contemporarv art 
ir Chinese students and exhibitins: 
;r paintings and lithographs all 
ver the Orient. In Greece an Ameri- 
m woman is recording Greek folk 
.usic and dance for the folklore 
•chives of the Academv of Athens, 
'orking alone or as part of a local 
roup, these women of high profes- 
onal competence win admiration 
id respect wherever they go and 
;Ip to erase the impression that 
mericans are interested in material 
ings onlv. 

Artists and musicians seldom need 
1 interpreter, and you may be sure 
at as they share their gifts these 
omen receive a rich return in 
iendship and understanding of 
joples. I think they would agree 
ith the artist who said, "\^Tien I 
ok at the starry sky, I find it small, 
ither I am growing or else the uni- 
;rse is shrinking — unless both are 
ippening at the same time. ' 

I have not spoken of the Peace 
orps nor of the missionaries. Here 
■ Agnes Scott the story of the mis- 
onaries is too well known to need 
ly comment from me. No one 
lows better than they how much 
is world has changed, for they have 
;en caught up in the wave of na- 
onalism and anti-colonialism which 

sweeping over Africa and Asia. I 

believe with all my heart in the new 
way of preaching Christianity by 
practicing it, and I wish you could 
visit the Presbyterian Medical Center 
in Chonju, in the heart of Korea — 
perhaps not as a patient there, as I 
was — and see what Paul and Sophie 
Crane are doing to fight poverty and 
disease and despair. Until I knew 
them, I think I never truly under- 
stood what Christianity meant. 

Family of Man 

For a great many years after I 
left Agnes Scott, the verse from 
Micah which was the Y.W.C.A. 
theme during my senior vear seemed 
a very firm foundation upon which 
to build a life — "What doth the Lord 
require of thee but to do justly, to 
love mercy, and to walk humbly with 
thy God?" But as the earth has 
seemed to shrink — or as I perhaps 
have grow'n — that no longer fulfills 
my need for a standard, for it leaves 
me uncommitted. Justice, mercy, 
humility are all very well, but I 
know now that one must be deeply 
involved in this changing w-orld to 
justify being a part of it. 

Three years ago the High Holv 
Day message of the Jewish Theologi- 
cal Seminary of America gave me 
the insight which I had been seek- 
ing. The Provost of the Seminary told 
me. when I wrote to acknowledge my 
debt of gratitude, that he had had 
hundreds of letters like mine, and the 
message had been widely circulated, 
so it may be familiar to you. but I 
think it bears repeating — in fact. I 
think it bears repeating every day. 

Do you sometimes find yourself saying 
"There's nothing / can do about the 
problems of the world?'" Nothing? 
There isn't a world problem which 
doesn't begin where you are, and al- 
ways you can diminish or add to it. 
Not to be aware of this — not knowing 
the difference you make — is in itself 
one of the biggest of world problems. 

Consider these three major issues 
of our time — ignorance, poverty, op- 

We often think the world problem 
is ignorance — yet the real problem 
is our own unwillingness to learn. 
Only when we seek to understand the 
minds of other men and women can 
we diminish ignorance in the world, 
risht where we are. 

In the opinion of many people, the 
greatest world problem is poverty. 
Here at home, in the midst of our 
abundance, poverty is very real in- 
deed. What are you doing in your 
community for the poor, the handi- 
capped, the aged? Are you and I 
doing it in the right way, with un- 
derstanding and compassion and 
humility, because we ourselves have 
been so richly blessed? To share 
what we have, and for the right rea- 
sons, will reduce poverty, right where 
we are. 

Many of us think the world prob- 
lem is oppression, yet the real prob- 
lem is the rejection of our neighbors. 
\^ e all belong to the Family of Man, 
and we are all alike, in that each of 
us is different. Whenever we make 
welcome a neighbor, of whatever 
race or creed, whenever we reach 
out of our tight little communities to 
touch the lives of those around us 
with respect for their differences, we 
reduce oppression and suspicion, 
right where we are. 

The problems of this changing 
world are so complex and over- 
whelming that it is all too easy to be 
discouraged, but we would do well to 
remember that mutual understanding 
between peoples is not often ad- 
vanced by a single dramatic stroke, 
but far more frequently by a thou- 
sand different pacts, by a thousand 
different people, all working in the 
small ways they know best, patiently 
trying to enlarge the area of mutual 
respect between human beings. 

As you go back to your homes in 
Atlanta and Birmingham and Chat- 
tanooga and Winston-Salem, think 
on these things. The world begins 
where you are. 

.'Author's Note: I owe a debt of 
gratitude to many people for their as- 
sistance with this speech, but especially 
to the Honorable Katie Louchheim and 
Mrs. George Morgan of Washington, 
D. C; Frau Elisabeth Klee and Frau 
Balbine von Diest of Bonn, Germany; 
Mr. Chae Jae-Sak, Chungyang Univer- 
sity, Seoul, Korea; and to Dr. Helen 
Kim, President Emeritus, Ewha Uni- 
versity, Seoul, Korea for allowing me 
to read the first chapters of her auto- 
biography in manuscript. 




"VIP's" at the speakers' table included Dr. McCain and Dr. Alston 

The class of 1914 poses prettily after receiving their 50 year pins. 

Dr. Hayes entertained alumnae — both in and out of class. 

More than half the class of 1939 were here for their 25th reunion. 


Mary Louise Duffee Philips '44, Alice Clements 
Shinall '43, Eleanor Hutchens '40 and Sarah 
Frances McDonald '36. 

New President Mary bet h 

Little Weston '48 (left) 

talks with Kagle Johnson 


An alumna delineates her particular 
process of maturing. 

Our Daily Bread 

with Indians in Wyomini 


ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Bet, her hus- 
band. Ware King, an Episcopal clergy- 
man, and their four children live on on 
Indian reservation. She, with Lorraine 
Juliana, has published a book. The Wall 
Between Us, an exchange of letters 
which is a Protestant-Catholic dialogue. 


I ere I sit at my Danish 
modern desk in a com- 
fortable stone house 
on a mission circle in 
the middle of an In- 
dian reservation in the middle of 
Wyoming. The air outside, this 
December evening, is a mild 38 de- 
grees, and I have just returned from 
the outdoor swimming pool with our 
four children. It seemed strange to- 
night: usually most of the swimmers 
in the hot springs pool, which be- 
longs to the Shoshone and Arapaho 
tribes, are Indians, but tonight I 
saw only whites. The Indians have 
all gone to Fort Washakie to a big 
dance. Tomorrow night they W'ill 
come here to the mission gym for 
the biggest Indian dance of the year. 
Every night in Christmas week a 
dance is held somewhere on the 
reservation, with men in big western 
hats sitting around a drum, thump- 
ing away and singing weird, high- 
pitched songs, while men, women, 
boys, and girls in buckskin, beads, 
feathers, and jingling bells dance 
around the circle of drummers, 
watched by their neighbors and kin 
sitting in chairs all around the hall. 
The men are the chief dancers, but 
anyone who wants to. whether in 
costume or not, is welcome to take a 
turn around the floor. 

My husband. Ware, tried to de- 
scribe Wyoming to me before we 
moved west eight years ago. I could 
not picture what he meant by wide 
open spaces and sagebrush and big 

incredibly blue skies. But I have felt 
at home here from the very first day. 
When we came we lived in a city for 
five years. At least in Wyoming it is 
a city. It had 5,000 persons when we 
arrived and was one of Wyoming's 
major cities. The two largest places 
in the state have about 35,000 popu- 
lation each. We have so few inhabi- 
tants that we elect only one Repre- 
sentative to Congress; but, as Ware 
says, "Wyoming has more people 
per capita than any other state." 
Sometimes, in other parts of America, 
it becomes hard to see the trees for 
the forest. As a suburban friend of 
mine wrote to me last summer: 

"We lived in Florida in the 
thirties, during the depression and 
after the collapse of the land boom 
down there, with wide paved streets 
grown to grass and half-finished 
buildings crumbling away in the 
sand. It was like living among the 
relics of a vanished culture. Only 
what had happened was that this 
culture hadn't happened at all. But 
what I noticed most, and still relish 
in memory, was that people were 
scarce enough to make each person 
individual and valuable. Now we live 
in a town where practically every- 
body I meet would have seemed to 
me then like the find of a lifetime — 
but there's no space around them, 
they're all crammed in here together. 
You know, like a forest, in which no 
tree can ever develop into a speci- 
men. I don't mean that this stunts 
the people, merely that it crowds 


"Elk" come larger-than-life at Dubois, Wyo. Four 
little Kings take a ride on Joe Back's sculpture. 

Bell tower at Our Father's House. 

inn and David King with Indian friends. 

one's enjoyment of them. I should 
think that this would be one of the 
benefits of living where people are 
spread out thin: congenial ones are 
rare enough to look just great when 
you find them." 

Well do I know what she means! 
When we lived in New York I 
worried because I lost my sense of 
the individual worth of the people I 
saw all jammed together in subways 
and fighting each other in depart- 
ment stores. Here, where the density 
(of trees and people I is about two 
per square mile, one notices and ap- 
preciates both persons and trees. 

One has more time, too. In a little 
city nobody has to leave for work or 
church or a meeting downtown more 
than five minutes before time to be 
there. The airport is less than ten 
minutes from anywhere in town. Yet 
at the same time we become ac- 
customed to going great distances. 
We spend all day getting to a state 
convention. It is not rare for me 
and others to get "cabin fever" and 
decide to take off for a movie in 
Casper. 1,50 miles away, or to make 
the beautiful drive to the Tetons. 
about the same distance in the other 
direction. The nearest four-year col- 
lege ( the only one in the state) is 
270 miles away. 

Now that we live on the reserva- 
tion, we have even more free time. 
Church life is less highly organized 
than it was in town, and we have 
given up the town's organizational 
life, which I used to enjoy but find 

I can do without. People in town 
kept telling us contradictory things 
about how it would be to live among 
the Indians. One said, "Now you'll 
have all the time in the world, Betty, 
to read and write." Another warned, 
'"You won't have a moment you can 
call your own. You'll be on call 24 
hours a day." Both were right. We 
receive telephone calls at 2 a.m. — 
both true emergency calls and also 
friendly, sociable calls from some- 
one in Salt Lake City. say. who may 
be a bit tight and wants to say hello 
to some kin down the road from us, 
and who wants us to go and get the 
kin. It seems that a lot of our time 
involves people without telephones 
telephoning people without tele- 
phones, long distance. The southern 
part of the Arapaho tribe is in Okla- 
homa, and there is much calling back 
and forth. Our people live in houses 
scattered over the countryside, often 
reached only by rutted roads where 
it is easy to get stuck in mud or snow. 
Although they are not poverty- 
stricken, the Indians among whom 
we live and work share many of the 
problems of Indians throughout the 
United States — inability to adapt to 
white men's culture and consequent 
purposelessness leading to social 
chaos. Last night at the Indian dance 
I was thinking how many young men 
and women who were probably at a 
similar dance four Christmases ago 
have dropped out of sight. Two are 
in the state penitentiary for crimes 
conmiitted while they were drunk. 



Our Dally Bread 


One was burned to death in a cabin 
where he and some buddies had gone 
to sleep off a drunk. A woman who 
had been drinking froze to death in 
the snow beside a road where she 
had been kicked almost to death by 
a drunk companion. Experts tell us 
that real alcoholism is not to blame, 
but severe problem drinking caused 
by acute despair, is. In one family in 
the past few months the son-in-law 
died at the wheel of a car that, be- 
fore it crashed, had been going 90 
miles an hour while he was drunk; a 
daughter, eleven years old, fell off 
the back of a moving truck while 
playing with some other children; 
and her brother, fourteen, died of 
complications from rheumatic fever. 
The birth rate is very high, but the 
mortality rate for infants ( mostly 
between eight and 12 months, from 
diarrhea or pneumonia ) and for 
young adults, is much too high. 

Our own children go to a modern, 
well staffed public school about four 
miles away. Seven-eighths of their 
classmates are Indians. Sarah, our 
firstborn New Yorker, almost four- 
teen now. says she loves it here and 
hopes we never leave. She is a 
country kid through and through, 
and so are her New York-born sis- 
ter. Martha, twelve; her Trenton- 
bom sister, Ann, nine; and her 
Wyoming-born brother. David, al- 
most seven. Martha said wistfullv the 
other day, "If I had my choice of 
races, I'd be an Arapaho Indian — 
or maybe a Shoshone." 

The Indians are a proud and in- 
dependent people. They have never 
been slaves. "They're undependable!" 
snort some of the white folk around 
here. Well, that goes with being in- 
dependent. You cannot depend on 
them to do what you want them to 
do, but that fact does not necessarily 
mean they are undependable. They 
usually manage to accomplish what 
ihey want to do. They have a sense 
of decency and order in their com- 
munity life. They value bravery, 
kindness, good judgment, and gen- 
erosity. If one of their number fails 


to share all he has with whomever 
asks him, they say, "He has a white 
man's heart." When someone makes 
off with the $300 raised to provide 
Christmas treats for the old people, 
he is disciplined not by lawsuits and 
demands for restitution, but by gos- 
sip and ostracism. 

Intratribal jealousies, rivalries, 
and hatreds build up in ways that 
are difficult for an outsider to un- 
derstand. It is said that if you want 
to consider yourself an expert on 
Indians, you'd better leave the 
reservation before you've been there 
a year. Now that we are in our fourth 
year here, I am much less an expert 
than I was in our first year. 

Our church seeks to be a good in- 
fluence on the whole community, 
working to meet whatever needs exist 
or arise. We do not have enough re- 
sources, personal or financial, to meet 
many needs at once; but we are try- 
ing to do the best job we can. Two 
social workers have recently come to 
help in the mission work, and they 
are a constructive influence. 

I do not feel adequate as a 
minister's wife in this situation. I 
like the people, but I have not been 
able to develop real rapport with 
more than one or two of them. People 
said to us when we decided to come 
here. "It takes the Indians four or 
five years before they begin to trust 
you," and also, "They make up their 
minds in the first two or three weeks 
whether they are going to like you." 
We had some highly vocal white op- 
position when we first arrived: the 
reason Ware volunteered to come in 
the first place was to deal with an 
unstable situation that had developed. 
It was the first time I had been con- 
scious of being labeled as one of the 
"bad guys." and I found soon that it 
is difficult to distinguish between 
being persecuted for Christ's sake 
and developing a nasty touch of 
paranoia. Now, thanks largely to 
Ware's patience and tact, the people 
are beginning to develop more con- 
fidence in us and in the Church we 

I do not think I could have dealt 
with our circumstances here ten or 
fifteen years ago. I enjoy our life 
now as I did not then. I like being 
middle-aged. Sometimes I think I 

must have been about eighty years old 
when I was born, and I am growins 
younger all the time. Now that I am 
approaching forty I feel more at 
home in me. 

It simply will not do to go far 
with that figure of speech; I'll start 
on another. I learned a great deal at 
Agnes Scott, but at the time I was 
there, I was not enough of a person 
to know what I was learning. (Were 
all the rest of you that way, too, I 
wonder? But I have felt that I was 
different. ) A boy said of me in high 
school, "Bet is the dumbest smart 
girl I ever saw."' I know now just 
what he meant. I was amazingly good 
at the advanced literature, intellectu- 
ally, when I had not even learned 
the alphabet emotionally. This ter- 
rible deficiency made it hard on the 
ones who cared, the friends and pro- 
fessors who did not know what to 
do for me and hoped somehow it 
would come out all right. 

My husband has much of the 
sanity I lacked, but he was and is 
so non-verbal, and I was, and am, so 
verbal that I did not understand 
most of what he tried to communicate 
in the first few years. It was not un- 
til we began to have children that I 
began to know how spiritual flesh is, 
how impossible it is to minister to 
an infant's spirit in any other way 
than physically, how much rich com- 
munication is possible without any 
words at all. With all this learning 
going on I had a rough time of it for 
a few years. I had sometimes been 
called "sweet" in high school and 
college. Now I discovered depths of 
bitterness and hatred that had been 
buried all those years. Having to 
stay home most of the time and to 
be responsible for children twenty- 
four hours a day, seven days a week 
four or five weeks a month, twelve 
months a year, how many years untfl 
they grew up! Who, me? It was 

I started learning the alphabet 
Now the advanced literature glows 
with new dimensions. Last fall, when 
our youngest started proudly off to 
first grade, having through many 
trials and errors learned to live with 
our children (and at the same time 
to understand and appreciate every- 
one else better) , I found that I could 


The King fomily (l-r)— Mariha, Betty, Sarah, 
David, Ware, Ann. 

Arapaho creation story drawn on 
the door of Our Father's House. 

A winter view of part of the Mission Circle. 

;asily live without them for eight 
lours a day. Life's possibilities, for 
ne as well as for our first-grader, 
lad opened up even further: I was 
ree once more to choose where I 
vould go and what I would do dur- 
ng the day. This may seem like a 
imall freedom to those who have al- 
vays had it, and all of us know it is 
I limited freedom in view of our 
nany responsibilities; but it is a 
reedom I cherish and enjoy to the 
ullest. Again I say, I like being 
Our first daughter's teen-age re- 

bellion has taken the form of an ex- 
traordinary neatness, not only about 
her person but also about her room, 
which she shares' with our second 
daughter. When she really gets go- 
ing, her industry, in pointed contrast 
to my sloth and sloppiness. carried 
her into our third daughter's room 
to clean it up! Am I hurt by this 
repudiation of the example I've al- 
ways set her? No, I am not. I am de- 
lighted. This is my unexpected, un- 
dreamed of, glorious compensation 
for the shadows caused by those four 
years of hearing. "Your room in- 

spection report goes on your per- 
manent record." 

A year or so ago Miss Emma May 
Laney, who was one of the splendid 
English professors at Agnes Scott 
and whom we like to see when we 
go to Denver, asked us, "Are you 
committed to the Indian work for 
life?" I was interested in knowing 
the ansM er, but I did not learn much 
factualli when Ware replied. "Yes, 
from day to day." But now I have 
found one does not need so des- 
perately to know where one is going 
if one knows where one is. 



I LctGj;*^ . . . 

Agnes Scott's 75th Anniversary Year in Retrospect 

As THE summer's HEAT and quiet descend all too 
quickly on the campus. I am already looking back with 
a certain nostalgia to the rush and pleasant noises of the 
75th anniversary year at Agnes Scott. 

I shall attempt to sort the welter of impressions that 
keep running through my consciousness. First comes the 
realization that it was a splendid idea to spread the anni- 
versary celebration over several months rather than to 
jam all events into one month, much less one week. 

My own real rejoicing began when I was sure that the 
75th Anniversary Campaign would be a resounding suc- 
cess. I had been so deeply involved in the "dailies'" of the 
campaign that it was a very particular kind of joy to 
revel in the knowledge of going over the campaign goal. 
This was not just delight in the fact that needed financial 
support for my college was assured but was also delight 
with alumnae, members of the campus community and 
others who joined forces to make this possible. 

Next in my reactions to the year was the pleasure of 
the 75th Anniversary Lecture Series. Hearty thanks are 
here given to Dr. Mary L. Boney. faculty chairman of 
Lecture Committee, for bringing these great people to 
Agnes Scott. I had thought it might be difficult for me to 
make the transition from, for example. Dr. Viktor 
Frankl's theory of logotherapy to Sir C. P. Snow's ap- 
proach to novel writing. But, of course, no transition was 
needed. I found myself easily savoring each lecture ex- 
perience. And I just wanted to keep Dr. Mark Van Doren 
and his poetry as a permanent part of .Agnes Scott. 

Then came Alumnae Week End in this special year. 
Again, I had been so close to the myriad details of 
planning the week end that I kept having nice surprises 
during those three days in April. That Friday morning 
in a chapel program some of Janef Preston '21"s poems, 
recently published as a long-awaited book. Upon Our 
Pulses, were read by Neva Jackson Webb '42 (who 
taught speech during Roberta Winter '27's leave of ab- 
sence this spring I , Vlartha Trimble Wapensky '44, and a 
group of Neva's students. I can find no words which can 
create for you the effect that the sounds in Janef's poetry 
created for me. 

Alice Jemigan Dowling '30, the Alumna Speaker in 

the 75th Anniversary Lecture Program, stayed on campus 
for several days after her excellent address Friday night 
of Alumnae Week End ( see p. 10 I . and I had the chance 
to begin to know her rather than just knowing about her. 

Prior to Alice's lecture, the College gave a dinner hon- 
oring the alunmae who were Area Chairmen in the forty- 
five geographic regions of the Campaign. Invited to be 
witli the area chairmen and their husbands were the 
Colleges Board of Trustees, the Executive Board of the 
Alumnae Association, and administrative officers of the 
College. Dr. W. Edward McNair. director of public rela- 
tions and development, presented the area chairmen with 
citations which were modelled on the Agnes Scott di- 

As I take this quick glance back at the seventy-fifth 
year. 1 am amazed and want to reassure you that the 
College did go on as usual in the midst of all the celebra- 
tions. Betty Brown '65. daughter of Isabel McCain Brown 
37 and granddaughter of President-Emeritus James R. 
McCain, was awarded the George P. Hayes Debate 
Trophy, given annually by Louisa Aichel Mcintosh '47 
and Dale Bennett Pedrick '47. 

Also among underclassmen. Sarah Timmons '65. daugh- 
ter of Mary Ellen Whetsell Timmons '39. received the 
Houghton Scholarship, awarded on the basis of future 
promise as indicated by character, personality, and scho- 
larship: and Grace Walker Winn '67, daughter of Grace 
Walker Winn '41, is a Stukes Scholar, so named for 
ranking first academically in her class. 

The student body voted to change the name of the stu- 
dent newspaper from The Agnes Scott News to The 
Profile. Elected as editor for 1964-65 was Jere Keenan "65. 
daughter of Lucille Dennison Keenan '37. Jere says she 
would welcome subscriptions from alumnae. Checks for 
S3. 50 should be made payable to Agnes Scott Profile and 
mailed to Box 648 at the College. 

The Class of 1964's Senior Opera was an hilarious 
"Hamlet: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love 
My Mother.'' They graduated June 8, 139 strong, and we 
welcome them to alumnae status. 



A magnificently tall pierced-brick wall will be the architectural feature of the Dana Fine Arts Building. 




Oo Not Take From This Room